《In a Different Voice》的笔记-第5页
- 页码：第5页 2011-11-28 12:00:00
In chapter 1, Carol introduced a relational voice and develop its counterpoint with traditional ways of speaking about self, relationship, and morality, as well as the potentials for misunderstanding, conflict,and growth.Many observations about sex difference support the conclusion reached by David McClelland(1975) thatConsequently, relationships, and particularly issues of dependency, are experienced differently by women and men. For boys and men, separation and individuation are critically tied to gender identity since separation from the mother is essential for the development of masculinity. For girls and women, issues of femininity or feminine identity do not depend on the achievement of separation from the mother or on the progress of indeviduation. Since masculinity is defined through separation while femininity is defined through attachment, male gender identity is threatened by intimacy while female gender identity is threatened by separation. Thus males tend to have difficulty with relationships, while females tend to have problems with individuation.But it's difficult to say "different" without saying "better" or "worse", since there is a tendency to construct a single scale of measurement, and since that scale has generally been derived from and standardized on the basis of men's interpretations of research data drawn predominantly or exclusively from studies of males, psychologists "have tended to regard male behavior as the 'norm' and female behavior as some kind of deviation from that norm". Thus, when women do not conform to the standards of psychological expectation, the conclusion has generally been that something is wrong the women.sex role turns out to be one of the most important determinants of human behavior; psychologists have found sex differences in their studies from the moment they started doing empirical research.That "recognition" means the continuing importance of attachment in the human life cycle.Woman's place in man's life cycle is to protect this recognition while the developmental litany intones the celebration of separation, autonomy, individuation, and natural rights.
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