- 页码：第39页 2012-02-02 19:59:25
【Right qualities of princely leadership pt.1】 1. Analysis of the Roman moralists to some extent be fortunate; vir, in order to attract the favorable attentions of Fortune ——examples: Cicero's Tusculan Disputations 'for glory is virtus rewarded' 2. Humanists of Renaissance Italy Ditto——examples: Bartolomeo Sacchi, Giovani Pontano, Francesco Patrizi, who claim that the possession of virtus is the key to princely success. example: Giovanni Pontano, "De Principe" in Prosatori Lattini del Quottrocento, ed.E. Garin (Milan, n.d.) pp1042-4 ——Machiavelli shares their view on the relation between virtu and fortune. It still remains, however, to consider what particular characteristics are to be expected in a man of virtuoso capacities. The Roman moralists had bequeathed a complex analysis of the concept of virtus, generally picturing te true vir as the possessor of three distinct yet affiliated sets of qualities——four cardinal virtues of wisdom, justice, courage and temperance (Cicero in the opening book of De Officiis). But Cicero is also credited with another one: honesty, a willingness to keep faith and deal honourably with all men at all times. --> Supplemented by two another virtues, each of them analyzed by Seneca. Magnanimity, the theme of Seneca On Clemency Liberality, Seneca On Benefits ”This contention — that it is always rational to be moral — lies at the heart of Cicero De Officiis“【有意思，这个要探索了】--> Book II: many men believe that a thing may be morally right without being expedient and expedient without being morally right. 【But it is an illusion.哈哈西塞罗~~~】, for it is only by moral methods that we can hope to attain the objects of our desires. Any appearances to the contrary are wholly deceptive, for expediency can never conflict with moral rectitude.【西塞罗的观点到此结束~】 ---->后代的继承和延伸：Patrizi on The Education of the King: Ｎｅｘｔ, they unhesitatingly endorsed the contention that the rational course of action for the prince to follow will always be the moral one, arguing the point with so much force that they eventually made it proverbial to say that 'HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY'. And finally, they contributed a specifically Christian objection to any divorce between expediency and the moral realm【！】. They insisted that, even if we succeeded in advancing our interests by perpetrating injustices in this present life, we can still expect to find these apparent advantages cancelled out when we are justly visited with divine retribution in the life to come. --->Ｔｈｅ Ｍａｃｈｉａｖｅｌｌｉｉａｎ Ｒｅｖｏｌｕｔｉｏｎ Chapter 15 in the Prince: being liberal, merciful and truthful is most praiseworthy for a prince. Ｂｕｔ he totally rejects the fundamental assumption that it is the ticket to his highest goals.
Ｈｅ ａｒｇｕｅｓ that, if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals, he will not always find it rational to be moral; on the contrary, he will find any consistent attempts to cultivate the princely virtues will prove to be a ruinously irrational policy. ---> But what about Judgement Day? About this Machiavelli says nothing at all. Ｈｉｓ ｓｉｌｅｎｃｅ ｗａｓ ｅｌｏｑｕｅｎｔ, indeed epoch making. 【！】; it echoed around Christian Europe, at first eliciting a stunned silence in return then a howl of execration that has never finally died away. 【！】
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