《How Children Learn at Home》的笔记-第1页
- 页码：第1页 2012-03-03 05:39:15
How Children Learn at HomeAlan Thomas and Harriet PattisonChapter 2Towards informal learningand this response from one parent would scandalize most teachers as well as parents of children in school: “sometimes days go by without anything special happening.”Trying to capture informal learningInformal learning is not restricted to childhood. Throughout life we are constantly picking up knowledge casually and incidentally in the context of everyday activities, at work, socially and at home, often with little awareness that we are actually learning anything. We may also learn a great deal by deliberately following an interest or hobby(比如我对unschooling和alternative education很感兴趣，不断地找这方面的东西看，结果是现在我对这方面有了比以前多得多的认识。这可以说是兴趣也可以说是需要，是由想了解自己小孩教育之需要而引发的兴趣). Informal home education allows a glimpse of just how powerful both these kinds of learning can be(很同意用 powerful 这个词来形容).In casual or incidental learning concepts are acquired, skills improved and new knowledge gained during the course of concrete, everyday activities. An activity, from the child’s point of view, may be helping to make cakes, going for a walk, shopping, going out in the car, reading a book, making a house out of a cardboard box, and so on. Any learning episodes, in maths, language, science, geography or whatever, are not differentiated but simply part and parcel of the concrete activity. They may be integral to the activity, such as maths in shopping and science in cooking, or incidental to it, occurring through social conversation, during a walk, in the car or at mealtimes. From the child’s point of view it is the activity which is paramount although what might be considered more intellectual elements of learning may also be advanced. It is therefore embedded and contextualized in a way it rarely can be in formal lessons.Chapter 3Other perspectives on informal learningEarly learningTrevarthen(1995) argues that more attention needs to be paid to the extent and nature of children’s input in terms their own self-motivated, creative, pro-active exploration of their world. This type of pro-activity is graphically illustrated by Tizard and Hughes(1984) who recorded talk between young children and their mothers. These conversations reveal the children’s purposeful inquiry into the nature of the physical and social world surrounding them. They ask questions and pursue subjects, intent on building up their own understanding in ways which have been described by the authors as ‘intellectual search’. Through self-initiated inquiries, children develop their own logical trains of thought, using their parents as a resource to fill some of the self-identified gaps in their own knowledge and, in a very real sense, doing their own scaffolding. (孩子根据自己的需要建立起对自己有意义的知识体系，他是非常有内在动力的。我个人的一点看法：太多的学校教育，老师教，学生学，哪怕是通过做游戏这种看上去富于娱乐的形式，其实很多时候会有损孩子的这种内在动力，因为我们给他的，不一定是在当时对他而言有意义的；这又使得成人们得花大力气，想各种招来“激励”孩子，让他们有足够动力。也许我们应该做的，是保养和助长孩子本有的内在动力——小孩子想要了解这个世界包括人类社会的内在动力是很丰沛的，而且他们想成为他们所见到的周围的其他人成人那样的人的动力也是很强大的，有些研究者认为婴儿天生就有这样的内在程序，正如每个正常孩子都想而且最终都会使用周围的人的语言。很多时候家长抱怨小孩什么也不愿做，小时候不爱学习，长大了不爱做事，其他的家长也以此做反面教材，认为小孩不激励不督促就会变成这个样子，我认为很可能这样的孩子其实是已经被家庭环境和社会环境包括学校环境破坏掉了，他失去了自我的内在动力。天生不好奇，不爱“学习”的孩子我还没有见过（只是他们的学习我们常常不认为是真正的“学习”）。小安每天早晨起床就开始忙乎，如果不管她，她会一直忙着自己的事，那些我们看来没有什么而在她很认真的事，比如把椅子搬来搬去给自己造房子，安排房子里的东西，完了还要请人作客，然后可能她要写信，画地图。。她要忙的事太多了，很难见到她有没事做的时候。周末有时她的朋友来我家睡觉也是，两个小人一起床就开始不停地忙乎。)…“the growth of numeracy skills.. has for the most part been treated as a purely interpersonal development but this neglects the fact that from the beginning children are exposed to adult conversations that are full of references to teach.. thus children’s developing cognitive competencies to deal with number are given every opportunity in the course of daily life to become interwoven with the way in which society makes use of numeracy.”….Broadly speaking, there are two competing ideologies concerning play as a vehicle for learning in the early years, one in favour of adult direction and the other of ‘free flow’ child-directed play. In teacher-directed play, teachers are expected to take advantage of any opportunities to extend learning during play sessions. Hence, it is deemed good practice to interact with children in order to extend vocabulary, make comparisons, ask questions, develop numeracy and so on. In fact there is a fear that children will not learn anything useful without careful preparation of play material and teacher intervention, for example, teachers failed to exploit the potential of play and cautioned that it should be planned with educational management in mind (OFSTED, 1993). Similarly, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority maintain that children will only learn through play with effective adult support(QCA, 2000). On the other hand, Bruce(1994, 2004) is a leading proponent of ‘free-flow play’ with its greater emphasis on intrinsic motivation, choice, control, active use of first-hand experience and a high level of imaginative, creative, innovative and original functioning, arguing that this is sufficient for learning to take place without adult direction other than provision of play materials. (草译一下：泛言之，对通过游戏来学习，早期教育领域中存在两种不同的认识：一种倾向于由成人来引导游戏，另一种主张孩子自主的自由玩耍。在由老师引导游戏这种方式中，老师要善于抓住游戏中的任何机会来引导孩子学习，扩展词汇拉，运用数字拉，问问题拉。。。甚至唯恐老师不精心准备和循循善诱的话儿童就学不到任何有用的东西（基本上学校的方式都是这种）。。。另一派主张让儿童自由玩耍，这一派看重内在动力，自我选择，自我掌控，自主行动，强调一手经验和高度的想像力，创造，创新和自我原创的执行 (这个original functioning我翻译不好)，他们认为这是非常充分的学习，无须成人引导，只需成人看着就够了。)——这本书就是对后一种方式做的一些调查。由于绝大多数的学校都不支持这种学习法，而家长又抱这种想法的话，那小孩子就不去上学了，他们有他们的群体，并非象很多人认为的不去学校就学不到比如怎样跟人交往，而他们的家长往往认为这样能让孩子更好地学习怎样与人相处与人交往，因为生活中的学习是真实的。Informal learning is part of life and while people are living they are quite possibly learning, at some level, all or most of the time. It is therefore no mean task, to say the least, to distinguish when children are learning or precisely what they are learning. …“children may learn no matter what activity they are engaged in.’Chapter 4The informal curriculum…argue that the developmental niche is created through parental behaviour which occurs in accordance with their values, beliefs and practical needs, rather than with any direct intention of teaching babies anything specific. For children who continue to be educated informally, what they learn is simply an extension of this. Children learning this way do not think of themselves as ‘learning’ in the sense that they do in school. Nor do their parents think of themselves as ‘teaching’. People just live and learning is part of that.(学校是跟真实的生活割裂开，看过的主张自主学习的书都讲到这个问题) this is completely at odds with the professional belief that cultural knowledge needs to be harnessed and pre-digested within a set instructional framework before being presented to children. The idea that such knowledge can be picked up haphazardly in the chaos of everyday existence or left to the whim of child interest is almost laughable. Yet the chaotic nature of the informal curriculum does not appear to be a barrier to children organizing it into a coherent body of knowledge. In fact, in some ways it may be an advantage because rather than presenting knowledge in neat packages the informal curriculum forces learners to be actively engaged with their information, to work with it, move it around, juggle ideas and resolve contradictions far more so than in formalized learning…. The point is that the real-life informal curriculum offers a consistently meaningful context. It is not a static thing contained in a series of educational folders. It is alive and dynamic.…..“the culture around you is the most important thing. I was very confident about them being literary and probably musical, artistic and intellectual because that is the culture of our house..”….On the face of it many of children’s pursuits are not at all ‘educational’ in the school sense. Rather they appear recreational, what children might do outside school. Yet whether ‘educational’ or not, these interests allow children to explore a topic at length, research, problem solve, persevere and develop a sense of mastery which, as well as providing them with some unusual knowledge, also helps develop the skills and concentration which can be applied to later learning or study.Chapter 8readingunlike in school however, ‘late’ reading did not appear to disadvantage these children in any way. They were all able to get on with other things that interested them by employing, as one father put it, ‘the verbal, the visual and the hands on’ as their learning methods. The explanations for reading at a later age are potentially many. One possibility is that children at home are simply not under pressure to start reading and have the freedom to wait until they are self-motivated to learn. This was the reason most frequently cited by parents, who often saw a specific motivating factor that galvanized their children into reading at a given point.
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