《How to Read a Book》的笔记-第1页
- 页码：第1页 2012-09-11 19:45:27
This has explantory passage in book-------------- Reading well, which means reading actively, is thus not only a good in itself, nor is it merely a means to advancement in our work or career. It also serves to keep our minds alive and growing.No one makes serious practical judgments or engages in action without being moved somehow from below the neck. The world might be a better place if we did, but it would certainly be a different world. The writer of practical books who does not realize this will be ineffective.The best protection against propaganda of any sort is the recognition of it for what it is. Only hidden and undetected oratory is really insidious.What reaches the heart without going through the mind is likely to bounce back and put the mind out of business. Propaganda taken in that way is like a drug you do not know you are swallowing. The effect is mysterious; you don't know afterwards why you feel or think the way you do.Take this book, for example. It is a pratical book. If your interest in it is practical(it might, of course, be only theoretical), you want to solve the problem of learning to read. You would not regard that problem as solved and done away with until you did learn. You must actually go through the activity of reading, not only this book but many others. That is what it means to say that nothing but action solves pratical problems, and action occurs only in the world, not in books.There are two particularly striking omission. An encyclopedia, properly speaking, contains no arguments, except insofar as it reports the course of arguments that are now widely accepted as correct or at least as of historical interest. Thus a major element in expository writing is lacking. An encycloedia also contains no poety or imaginative literature, although it may contain facts aobut poetry and poets. Since both the imagination and the reason are required for understanding, this means that the encyclopedia must be a relatively unsatisfying tool in the pursuit of it.What men live by?==== what is not given to man?Common experience is most relevant to the reading of fiction, on the one hand, and to the reading of philosophy, on the other. Judgments concerning the versimilitude of a novel are most wholly based on common experiencce;The great wirters have always been great readers, but that does not mean that they read all the books that, in their day, were listed as the indispensible ones, In many cases, they read fewer books than are now required in most of our college, but what they did read, they read well. Because they had mastered these books, they became peers with their authors.To be equally serious in receiving such communication, one must be not only a responsive but also a responsible lisener. You are responsive to the extent taht you follow what has been said and note the intention that prompts it. But yu also have the responsibility of taking a position. When you take it, it is yours, not the author's. TO regard anyone except yourself as responsible for your judement is to be a slave , not a free man.It is froom this fact that the liberal arts acquire their name.Teachability is often confused with subservience. A person is wrongly thought to be teachable if he is passive and pliable. On the contrary, teachability is an extremely active virtue. No one is really teachable who does not freely exercise his power of independent judgement. He can be trained, perhaps, but not taught. The most teachable reader is therefore, the most critical. He is the reader who finally responds to a book by the greatest effort to make up his own mind on the matters the author has discussed.As we pointed out in our discussion of reading speeds, you will read them relatively quickly. From your point of view as a reader, the sentences important for you are those that require an effort of einerpretation because,at first sight, they are not perfectly intelligible. You understand them just well enough to know there is more to understand. They are the sentences that you read much more slowly and carefully than the rest. Theese may not be the sentences taht are most important for the author, but they are likely to be, be cause you are likely to have the grestest difficulty with the most important things the author has to say. And it hardly needs remarking that htose are the things you shoud read most carefully.Some books and some teachers are interested only in the knowledge itself that they have to communicate. This does not mean that they deny its utility, or that they insist that knowledge is good only for its own sake. They simply limit themselves to one kind of communication or teaching, and leave the other kind to other men These others have an interest beyond knowledge for its own sake. They are concerned with the problems of human life that knowledge can help to solve .They communicate knowledge, too., but always with a view to and an emphasis upon its application.It is much easy to think of and be conscious of physical acts. It is much harder to think of mental acts, as the beginning analytical reader must do; in a sense, he is thinking about his own thoughts.**********what you don very imperfectly at first, you gradually come to do with the kind of almost automatic perfection that an instinctive performance has. You do some-thing as if you were born to it, as if the activity were as natural to you as walking or eating. That is what it means to say that habit is second nature.**********The art as something that can be taught consist of rules to be followed in operation.The person who says he knows what he thinks but cannot express it usually does not know what he thinks.how to increase your reading speed. Just use your own hand. Put thumb and first two fingers together, and sweep the 'pointer' across a line of type, a little faster than it is comfortable for your eyes to move.speaking pratically, educational opportunity that is limited only by individual desire, ability, and need-is the most valuable service that society can provide for its members.There is some feeling nowadays that reading is not as necessary as it once was. Radio and especially television have taken over many of the functions once served by print, just as photography has taken over functions once served by painting and other grapic arts. Admittedly, TV serves some of these functions extremely well; the visual communication of news event, for example, has enormous impact. The ability of radio to give us information while we are engaged in doing other things--for instance, driving a car--is remarkable, and a great saving of time, But it may be seriously quesioned whether the advent of modern communications media has much enhanced our understanding of the world in which we live.keenness of observation, readily available memory, range of imagination, and, of course, an intellect trained in analysis and reflection. The reason for this is taht reading in this sense is discovery, too--although with help instead of without it.as...adv.In the idea, character, or condition of, limiting the view to certain attributes or relationsdressed up as a ghost"a far cry:a,quite some distance, a long way.b. only remotely related;very different: this treatment is a far cry from that which we received before.
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There is some feeling nowadays that reading is not as necessary as it once was. Radio...
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