读过 Thinking and Deciding
Rational does not
mean, here, a kind of thinking that denies emotions and desires: It means, the kind
of thinking we would all want to do, if we were aware of our own best interests, in
order to achieve our goals.
A decision is a choice of action — of what to do or not do. Decisions are made
to achieve goals, and they are based on beliefs about what actions will achieve the
Decisions depend on beliefs and goals, but we can think about beliefs and goals
separately, without even knowing what decisions they will affect. When we think
about belief, we think to decide how strongly to believe something, or which of
several competing beliefs is true. When we believe a proposition, we tend to act as
if it were true.
When we decide on a personal goal, we make a decision that affects future decisions.
Actions, beliefs, and personal goals can be the results of thinking, but they can
also come about in other ways.引自 What is thinking?
We search for three kinds of objects: possibilities, evidence, and goals. Fun. Interest...
In sum, learning without understanding was characterized either by lack of transfer of ...