- 2013-08-24 09:39:54
1. Shakers | Quakers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakers The "United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing" (USBCSA), known as the "Shakers", is a religious sect. Founded upon the teachings of Ann Lee, Shakers today are mostly known for their cultural contributions (especially their style of music and furniture), and their model of equality of the sexes, which they institutionalized in their society in the 1780s.Shaker beliefs have generated a unique culture and ways of life that have enriched the cultural history of the United States as well as subsequently inspiring many modern fields.Membership in the Shakers dwindled in the late 19th century for several reasons: people were attracted to cities and away from the farms; Shaker products could not compete with mass-produced products that became available at a much lower cost; and Shakers could not have children, so adoption was a major source of new members. This continued until orphanages were established and the states began to limit adoption by religious groups.2. Boston Hancock Shake Village http://hancockshakervillage.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hancock_Shaker_VillageHancock Shaker Village is a former Shaker village in Hancock, Massachusetts that was established in 1791. It was the third of nineteen major Shaker villages established between 1783 and 1836 in New York, New England, Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana under the leadership of "Mother" Ann Lee and later Joseph Meacham and Lucy Wright.
Shaker dance and worshipThe village was closed by the Shakers in 1960, and sold to a local group, who now operate the property as a museum. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark District in 1968.3. Lucio Fontana http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucio_Fontana http://connorhjones.wordpress.com/2010/04/04/lucio-fontana/
Hancock Shaker VillageLucio Fontana (19 February 1899 – 7 September 1968) was an Italian painter, sculptor and theorist of Argentine birth. He was mostly known as the founder of Spatialism (空间主义) and his ties to Arte Povera. He combined the two forms of art and created his own style known in Italian as Spazialismo.4. Piet Mondrian http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_MondrianPieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaan, after 1906 Mondrianwas a Dutch painter. He was an important contributor to the De Stijl art movement and group, which was founded by Theo van Doesburg. He evolved a non-representational form which he termed Neo-Plasticism (新造形主义, 源自几何抽象艺术(geometrical abstraction)). This consisted of white ground, upon which was painted a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines and the three primary colors. Between his 1905 painting, The River Amstel, and his 1907 Amaryllis, Mondrian changed the spelling of his signature from Mondriaan to Mondrian.5. 建筑与绘画、雕刻及其其他艺术不同的地方，在于它必须接受所有的条件限制。比如说经济的、社会的、法律上的限制以及建筑基地的局限。此外，作为建筑师也不得不辛苦地去协调甲方、水泥工与木匠等众多人员间的意见和想法。就这样在和各种不同阻力的斗争中，建筑逐渐地被构筑起来、趋于完成。若没有那些斗争，就不会有建筑。极端地说，建筑的生产过程便是立足在无止境的斗争中，而完成后的建筑也不过就是那斗争的结果罢了。总而言之，建筑就是斗争的艺术；而施工现场就宛如斗争的舞台。斗争的实质越精彩，那么完成的建筑也就越有趣。6. Richard Serra http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Serra http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2007/serra/Richard Serra (born November 2, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large-scale assemblies of sheet metal. Serra was involved in the Process Art Movement. He lives and works in Tribeca, New York, and on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.
Piet Mondrian, Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow7. Simon Rodia http://www.wattstowers.us/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_RodiaSabato "Simon" Rodia (February 12, 1879 – July 16, 1965) was an Italian-American who created the Watts Towers, a Los Angeles landmark. A photograph of Simon Rodia is included on the cover of the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, released in 1967. The public Simon Rodia Continuation High School in Watts is named for him.
Fulcrum 1987, 55-foot freestanding sculpture of Cor-ten steel8. Frederick Kiesler http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Kiesler http://www.archdaily.com/tag/frederick-john-kiesler/Frederick John Kiesler (Czernowitz or Tschernovitz, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Chernivtsi, Ukraine), September 22, 1890 – New York City, December 27, 1965) (born as Friedrich Kiesler). Austrian-American architect, theoretician, theater designer, artist and sculptor.9. Claes Oldenburg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claes_Oldenburg http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=4397Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is an American sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. Another theme in his work is soft sculpture versions of everyday objects. Many of his works were made in collaboration with his wife, Coosje van Bruggen, who died in 2009 after 32 years of marriage. Oldenburg lives and works in New York.
Simon Rodia's Watts Towers10. Vitra Design Museum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitra_Design_Museum http://www.archdaily.com/211010/ad-classics-vitra-design-museum-and-factory-frank-gehry/The Vitra Design Museum is an internationally renowned, privately owned museum for design in Weil am Rhein, Germany. Vitra CEO Rolf Fehlbaum founded the museum in 1989 as an independent private foundation. The Vitra corporation provides it with a financial subsidy, the use of Vitra architecture, and organizational cooperation.
Project Year: 198911. Victor Horta http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Horta http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Victor_Horta.html http://www.history.co.uk/shows/unesco/videos/unesco-world-heritage-sites-major-town-houses-of-the-architect-victor-horta.htmlVictor, Baron Horta (6 January 1861 - 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that he is sometimes credited as the first to introduce the style to architecture from the decorative arts. The French architect Hector Guimard was deeply influenced by Horta and further spread the "whiplash" style in France and abroad.In 1932 King Albert I of Belgium conferred on Horta the title of Baron for his services to architecture. Four of the buildings he designed have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.• Towards Art Deco and ModernismOn Horta's return to Brussels in January 1919 he sold his home and workshop on the rue Américaine, and also became a full member of the Belgian Royal Academy.The post-war austerity meant that Art Nouveau was no longer affordable or fashionable. From this point on Horta, who had gradually been simplifying his style over the previous decade, no longer used organic forms, and instead based his designs on the geometrical. He continued to use rational floor plans, and to apply the latest developments in building technology and building services engineering. The Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, a multi-purpose cultural centre designed in a formal style that was new at the time, but which foreshadows Art Deco as well as having cubist features, is a particularly prominent example.Horta developed the design for the Palais over several years from 1919, with construction finally beginning in 1923. Externally the building is clad in stone, however it was largely built using reinforced concrete. Following the way he had left steel exposed in his Art Nouveau buildings, Horta had originally intended to leave the concrete exposed internally. Unfortunately the surface was unsatisfactory and, to his regret, had to be covered. Internally, Horta's complex floor plans again demonstrate his talent for rational design. Combining his love of both music and architecture, Horta designed an unusual egg-shaped concert hall which is regarded as one of the Worlds' greatest, although modifications in 1970 harmed the acoustics. The Henry Leboeuf hall, the main concert hall, was renovated in 2000 and the acoustics have been restored. Further restoration work on other parts of the building took place during the 2000s.In 1927, Horta became the Director of the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, a post he held for four years until 1931. In recognition of his work, Horta was awarded the title of Baron by Albert I of Belgium in 1932.Horta actually began working on his longest running project - the modernist Brussels-Central railway station - in 1910, although (despite having been commissioned to prepare drawings in 1913) work didn't start until 27 years later. It was originally envisaged that this would form part of a much larger Municipal Development, which Horta also worked on during the 1920s, although this never materialised.The start of construction was seriously delayed due to the lengthy process of purchasing and demolishing over 1,000 buildings along the route of the new railway (between the existing stations), technical problems, and the intervention of World War I. Construction finally began in 1937 as part of the plans to boost the economy during the Great Depression, before being delayed again by the outbreak of World War II. Horta was still working on the station when he died in 1947, and the building was completed to his plans by his colleagues led by Maxime Brunfaut. It eventually opened on 4 October 1952.12. Andrea Palladio http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_PalladioAndrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is widely considered the most influential individual in the history of Western architecture. All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition. The city of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Vicenza | Venice• Villa Capra "La Rotonda" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GKTempEKOw013. Mimar Sinan & Istanbul http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimar_Sinan http://www.greatsinan.com/bio.asp http://www.todayszaman.com/news-186249-on-the-track-of-legendary-mimar-sinan-in-istanbul.htmlKoca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ (Ottoman Turkish: معمار سينان; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan) (c. 1489/1490 – July 17, 1588 was the chief Ottoman architect (Turkish: "Mimar") and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was responsible for the construction of more than three hundred major structures and other more modest projects, such as his Islamic primary schools (sibyan mektebs). His apprentices would later design the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Stari Most in Mostar and help design the Taj Mahal in the Mughal Empire.His masterpiece is the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, although his most famous work is the Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul. He headed an extensive governmental department and trained many assistants who, in turn, distinguished themselves, including Sedefkar Mehmed Agha, architect of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque. He is considered the greatest architect of the classical period of Ottoman architecture, and has been compared to Michelangelo, his contemporary in the West. Michelangelo and his plans for St. Peter's Basilica in Rome were well known in Istanbul, since Leonardo da Vinci and he had been invited, in 1502 and 1505 respectively, by the Sublime Porte to submit plans for a bridge spanning the Golden Horn.
Selimiye Mosque14. 洛杉矶是个没有传统的都市。它就像是一只蠢动的不明生物将触手往四面伸展，以高速公路覆盖了整个都市，是一个完全失控而能量持续涌出、不断变动的地方。洛杉矶以那样的速度无止境地追求着享乐、尽可能地随心所欲，可以说是一个宛如资本主义的私生子般的城市。自由⋯⋯洛杉矶这个城市便象征着美国专有的“自由”这个词汇。因为没有传统，所以没有什么根本的东西存在⋯⋯自由，没有守着的必要⋯⋯自由。由于没有什么根本的东西，因此在创作什么新东西时，根本不需要任何解释与说明。因为没有什么该守住的东西，所以对新的东西也不会有什么怨言。谁都不关心谁、只要自己高兴没什么不可以的意识形态，就是洛杉矶的象征。取而代之的是只要你一通电话，瞬间就会有车开过来。那也是一个因为高速公路与电话线的发达而丧失了真实距离感的都市。15. 正因为对所表达的东西存在着视觉与听觉上的差异，这个反复的魔术令人觉得和观念艺术的方法论相当接近。比如，Andy Warhol不断地绕着帝国大厦所拍出的影像或是成为他代表作的“一百个汤罐头”，即是他将这些到处都有、极端日常生活的形象透过简单排列反复的手法来证明，它们的确是能够超越日常的底线到达一个不可思议的境界的。
Suleiman Mosquehttp://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=89507 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-sSsWj2HWk016. Adolf Loos http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Adolf_Loos.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_LoosAdolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian architect. He was influential in European Modern architecture, and in his essay 【Ornament and Crime】 he abandoned the aesthetic principles of the Vienna Secession. In this and many other essays he contributed to the elaboration of a body of theory and criticism of Modernism in architecture.Loos, through his writings and his groundbreaking projects in Vienna was able to influence other architects and designers, and the early development of Modernism. His careful selection of materials, passion for craftsmanship and use of 'Raumplan'--the considered ordering and size of interior spaces based on function—are still admired today.
Andy Warhol Empire17. Vienna Secession http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna_Secession Vienna SecessionThe Vienna Secession (also known as the Union of Austrian Artists, or Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs) was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects. The first president of the Secession was Gustav Klimt, and Rudolf von Alt was made honorary president. Its official magazine was called "Ver Sacrum".• Style of the SecessionistsUnlike other movements, there is not one style that unites the work of all artists who were part of the Vienna Secession. The Secession building could be considered the icon of the movement. Above its entrance was placed the phrase "Der Zeit ihre Kunst. Der Kunst ihre Freiheit." ("To every age its art. To art its freedom."). Secession artists were concerned, above all else, with exploring the possibilities of art outside the confines of academic tradition. They hoped to create a new style that owed nothing to historical influence. In this way they were very much in keeping with the iconoclastic spirit of turn-of-the-century Vienna (the time and place that also saw the publication of Freud's first writings).The Secessionist style was exhibited in a magazine that the group produced, called Ver Sacrum, which featured highly decorative works representative of the period.
Adolf Loos - Muller House
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