- 页码：第54页 2014-01-26 20:28:18
1. Wherever humans exist, language exists.2. There are no primitive languages — all languages are equally complex and equally capable of expressing an idea in the universe. The vocabulary of any language can be expanded to include new words for new concepts.3. All languages change through time.4. The relationships between the sounds and the meanings of spoken languages between the gestures and meanings of sign languages are for the most part arbitrary.5. All human languages use a finite set of discrete sounds or gestures that are combined to form meaningful elements or words, which themselves may be combined to form an infinite set of possible sentences.6. All grammars contain rules of a similar kind for the formation of words and sentences.7. Every spoken language includes discrete sound segments, like p, n, or a, that can all be defined by a finite set of sound properties or features. Every spoken language has a class of vowels and a class of consonants.8. Similar grammatical categories (for example, noun, verb) are found in all languages.9. There are universal semantic properties like “male” or “female”, found in every language in the world.10. Every language has a way of negating, forming questions, issuing commands, referring to past or future time, and so on.11. Speakers of all languages are capable of producing and comprehending an infinite set of sentences. Syntactic universals reveal that every language has a way of forming sentences.12. Any normal child, born anywhere in the world, of any racial, geographical, social, or economical heritage, is capable of learning any language to which he or she is exposed. The differences we find among languages cannot be due to biological reasons.We are all intimately familiar with at least one language, our own. Yet few of us ever stop to consider what we know when we know a language. The words of a language can be listed in a dictionary, but not all the sentences can be; and a language consists of these sentences as well as words. Speakers use a finite set of rules to produce and understand an infinite set of possible sentences.These rules are part of the grammar of a language, which develops when you acquire the language and includes the sound system (the phonology), the structure of words (the morphology), how words may be combined into phrases and sentences (the syntax), the ways in which sounds and meanings are related (semantics), and the words or lexicon. The sounds and meanings of these words are related in an arbitrary fashion. The knowledge (linguistic competence) is different from behavior (linguistic performance). If you woke up one morning and decided to stop talking, you would still have knowledge of your language. Grammars are of different kinds. The descriptive grammar of a language represents the unconscious linguistic knowledge or capacity of its speakers. Such a grammar is a model of the mental grammar every speaker of the language knows. It does not teach the rules of the language; it describes the rules that are already known. A grammar that attempts to legislate what your grammar should be is called a prescriptive grammar. It prescribes. Teaching grammars are written to help people learn a foreign language or a dialect of their own language.
蒂。对本书的所有笔记 · · · · · ·
一字一字看 再一字一字敲 tired but happy There is a difference between having the knowle...
The grammar includes everything speakers know about their language â€” the sound system, ca...
敲字的时候正好听的是EM的Brain Damage~~~ hahahah Attempts to understand the complexities...
Words in the lexicon are linked to each other through both sound and meaning. Words are no...
说明 · · · · · ·