《Patterns of Democracy》的笔记-第143页
- 章节名：Chapter 8 Electoral systems: Majority and Plurality Methods vs Proportional Representation
- 页码：第143页 2014-05-05 04:14:04
Majoritarian: single-member district plurality or majority system>>winner take all The ones get supported by majority will be overrepresented in terms of parliamentary seatsConsensus: proportional representation (PR) representation of both majorities and minoritiesless change between two systems, attached to its own electoral system.PR is less disproportional than pluralityElectoral FormulasMajoritarian: * Plurality:Who receives the most * Majority:absolute majority for election (majority-plurality, majority run-off-a second ballot between the top two) * Alternative: true majority formula (AU) excluding the weakest candidate and redistributing the ballots in question to the next highest preferences in each stage of the counting, until majority winner emerges.Semi-Proportional formulas: Japan: * limited voted>>Single Non-transferable vote (SNTV) limited vote: voters don’t have as may votes as there are seats in the district; SNTV:only one vote * parallel plurality-PR system: a district vote and a PR vote. But PR seats are not compensatory, two systems are entirely separated. so the system is only partly proportional instead of a form of PR.PR system * list PR system: Parties nominate lists of candidate, voters cast their ballots for one party list or another. Seats are allocated to the party lists in proportion to the numbers of votes they have collected (Differences among list PR: 1) different formula: d’Hondt formula: slight bias in favor of large parties and against small parties+other; 2) open-list or closed-list system) * mixed member proportional (MMP): some plurality and some list PR, a voter has 2 votes—one for a district candidate and one for a party list. (*Why it is PR system? list PR seats compensate fort any disproportionality produced by the district seat results) * Single transferable vote (STV): vote for individuals instead of party list (strongest and weakest candidate’s vote will be transferred to the next)District Magnitude: Importance:1) strong influence on both systems. But increasing the district magnitude in plurality and majority systems entails greater disproportionality and greater advantages for large parties/ under PR it results in greater proportionality and more favorable conditions for small parties. * multimember districts have become rare: more disproportional than already disproportional single-member districts.2) have strong impact on the degree of proportionality that different PT systems attain In many list PR countries, they use two levels of districts in order to combine the advantage of closer voter representative contact in small districts and higher proportionality of large>>MMP systems use the large district compensates for any disproportionlities in the smaller districtsElectoral Thresholds: the explicit barrier against small parities implied by district magnitudeSize of body to be elected1) specially important when the seats in the body is under 100 (no sets for proportionality)2) countries have their legislative body under the cube root of their population will experience high disproportionality.Presidential system: (indirect but strong effect) * large parties have considerable advantage over smaller parties * Especially strong when 1) the legislative elections are held at the same time or shortly after presidential elections; 2) presidential election is decided by plurality instead of majority-runoffMalapportionment Especially hard to avoid in single-member districts, better under PR. And eliminated as a problem when election are conducted in one large nationwide districtMain case: rural overrepresentationMalapportionment in favor of rural areas leads to increased disproportionality in partisan representation if the larger parties benefit from it. Apparentement Different list on ballot but formally “link” these lists. Helps small parties and tends to reduce disproportionality and to increase the effective number of parities (not only PR but also others to maximize electoral gain). Degree of disproportionality Difference b/w votes and seats, how to choose the proxy?MMP: party list >> express preferenceSTV/alternative: First preference votes(differences above 2 are of minor importance, substantial: France-first ballot and second)Electoral Disproportionality in Presidential Democracies * Voter consider the presidential election to be the more impotent one * Presidential election are inherently disproportional (than legislative election): single official (selected body is “1”, winner take all, reductive effects on the number of parties >>> presidential systems tend to be inherently majoritarian)Degrees of disproportionality in 36 democraciesPR-majority/Plurality line:PR===============Japan’s SNTV==========||======Greece(change a lot) Spain(low district magnitude)======Majority/Plurality highest disproportionalityies: are all small countries with plurality system and unusually small legislatures (small body size) Presidentialism of countries gives them high overall disproportionality (under PR system)Why disproportionality is low in US?1) existence of primary elections. Primary elections give strong incentives for dissidents to try their luck in one of the major party primaries instead of establishing separate small parties.2) state laws tend to discriminate against small parities. **presidential elections give the US a high overall level of disproportionality.
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