《Advice for a Young Investigator》的笔记-Chapter 5 - Diseases of the Will
- 章节名：Chapter 5 - Diseases of the Will
- 2014-10-09 19:25:48
这一章主要讨论意志力薄弱的类型和危害。可以用来对比自己有哪些倾向并作出调整。Cajal总结的"diseases of the will"有六种类型。1. contemplator —— 容易被自然的美所吸引，喜爱收藏和观察，却不能深入思考事物的本质、提出假说并用实验证明。2. bibliophiles and polyglots —— 博览群书，热爱新奇的东西，享受这种精神上的愉悦却不能做出自己的原创发现。3. megalomaniacs —— 空想家，渴望做出重大的发现，有过多的不切实际的想法。All of these happens because when they started out these men did not follow with humility and modesty a law of nature that is the the essence of good sense: tackle small problems first, so that if success smiles and strength increases one may then undertake the great feats of investigation. This cautious approach may not always lead to fame, but at least it will earn for us the esteem of the learned and the respect and consideration of our colleagues.4. Instrument addicts —— 仪器控（甚至都不是技术控），把所有的东西都锁起来不让大家用。5. Misfits —— 这里指因为各种原因被绑在科研这个职业又不行其责的人。6. Theorists —— "理论家"（注意这里指的是不重视实验事实的一类理论爱好者，而不是我们常说的理论家）The truth is that dreamers do not work hard enough; they lack perseverance.Basically, the theorist is a lazy person masquerading as a diligent one. He unconsciously obeys the law of minimum effort because it is easier to fashion a theory than to discover a phenomenon.One must distinguish between working hypotheses (Arbeitshypothesen of Weismann) and scientific theories. The hypothesis is an interpretative questioning of nature. It is an integral part of the investigation because it forms the initial phase, the virtually required antecedent. But to speculate continuously - to theorize just for its own sake, without arriving at an objective analysis of phenomena —— is to lose oneself in a kind of philosophical idealism without a solid foundation, to turn one's back on reality.In short, the beginner should devote maximal effort to discovering original facts by making precise observations, carrying out useful experiments, and providing accurate descriptions. He will use hypotheses as inspiration during the planning stage of an investigation, and for stimulating new fields of investigation. If, in spite of everything, he feels compelled to create vast scientific generalizations, let him do so later on when the abundant observations he has reaped have earned for him a solid reputation. Then and only then will he be listened to with respect and discussed without ridicule. And if fortune smiles, he will someday wear the double crown of investigator and philosopher.
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Chapter 5 - Diseases of the Will
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