《The Origin of Species》的笔记-第63页
- 章节名：An Historical Sketch
- 页码：第63页 2015-03-15 03:15:33
Immutable productions and separately created VS undergo modification and generation of pre-existing forms* Aristotle: Rain does not fall in order to make the corn grow; teeth, grow by necessity, adapted for dividing, ... since they were not made for the sake of this, it was the result of accident and appears to exist an adaptation to an end. Sum-> all things happened as if made for sake of something; constituted by an internal spontaneity, if not, perished.Lamarck 1801 1809 Philosophies Zoologique:- species, including man, descend from other species. - probability of all changes, in organic & inorganic world, being the result of law rather than miraculous interposition. - basis of theory: gradual change of species (I.e. domestication)- means of modification: direct action of physical conditions of life, crossing of already existing forms, to use and disuse (effect of habit ~ adaptation).- law of progressive developmentGoethe 1794 1795:- future question for naturalists will be how, for instance, cattle got their horns, and not for what they are used.Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire 1795 1828:- what we call species are various degeneration of the same type.- the same forms have not perpetuated since the origin of all things.- basis: 'monde ambiant', contains of life, or surrounding world- did not believe existing species are now undergoing modificationDr W. C. Wells 1813 1818 Two Essays upon Dew and Single Vision:- principle of natural selection; first recognized, but only applied to man, and to certain characters.- E.g. Man races in Central Africa and colder climates, animal domesticationHon. and Rev. W. Herbert 1822 1837:- plants& animals: single species of each genus were created in an originally highly plastic condition -> produced all existing species by intercrossing & variation.Professor Grant 1826 Spongilla:- species descend from other species, and become improved through modificationMr Patrick Matthew 1831 1860:- same view as W.C.Well and Darwin- world was depopulated at successive periods and then restocked- new forms may be generated without the presence of any mound of germ of former aggregates.Von Buch 1836 Description Physique des Isles Canaries:- varieties slowly become changed into permanent species, which no longer capable of intercrossingRafinesque 1836 New Flora of North America:- all species might have been varieties once, and many varieties are gradually becoming species by assuming constant and peculiar charactersProfessor Haldeman 1843-44:- hypothesis of development and modification of species- lean towards the side of changeRobert Chambers 1844 Vestiges of Creation- all species under the providence of God, the result of FIRST, an impulse imparted to the forms of life, advancing them, in definite times, by generation, through grades of organization terminating in the highest dicotyledons and vertebrata, and SECOND, another impulse connected with vital force, tending, in generations, to modify organic structures in accordance with external circumstances (adaptations).- can be interpreted that organization progresses by sudden leaps, but the effects produced by conditions of life are gradual- strongly argue that species are not immutable productions, but have no accurate knowledge or scientific sense- call attention to the subject, remove prejudice and prepare ground for later on viewsM. J. d'Omalius 1831 1846:- new species produced by descent with modification rather than separately createdProfessor Owen 1849 1858:- the archetypal idea was manifested in the flesh under diverse such modifications, upon this planet, long prior to the existence of those animal species that actually amplify it. To what natural laws or secondary causes the orderly succession and progression of such organic phenomena may have been committed, we, as yet, are ignorant. - the axiom of the continuous operation of creative power, or of the ordained becoming of living things- by the word "creation" the zoologist means "a process he knows not what".- interpreted that natural selection may have done something in the formation of a new species, but is inaccurate and without evidence- controversial writings difficult to understand and to reconcile with each otherDr Freke 1851 1861 Origin of Species by means of Organic Affinity:- all organic beings have descended from one primordial form- grounds of belief and treatment of subjects wholly different from DarwinMr Herbert Spencer 1852:- contrast the theories of Creation and Development of organic beings- attribute the modification to the changes of circumstancesM. Naudin 1852:- species are formed in an analogous manner as varieties are under cultivation (man's power of selection)- species, when nascent, were more plastic than at presentDr Schaaffhausen 1853:- distinction of species explained by destruction of intermediate graduated forms- living plants and animals are not separated from the extinct by new creations, but are to be regarded as their descendants through continued reproduction.'Philosophy Creation'Rev. Baden Powell 1855 Essays on the Unity of Worlds:- the introduction of new species is a regular, not a casual phenomenonSir John Hershel:- a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous processVon Baer 1859:- by laws of geographical distribution, forms now perfectly distinct have descended from a single parent-fromProfessor Huxley 1859:- the amount of modification which living beings have undergone during geological time is but very small in relation to the whole series of changes which they have suffered.Lawmark是第一个提出较初步的进化理论-用进废退W.C.Wells第一个提出natural selection各种理论出现在十九世纪上半叶各种journal，society已经形成英法德都有有观方面学者的学术研究新大陆的发现（北美澳大利亚新西兰），为研究提供了许多证据Varieties -> Species, Species -> Varieties. Change or conserveNote on this edition: Not only does the first edition possess a unique historical interest, however, but it also presents in many ways a more clear-cut and forceful version of Darwin's theory than the later edition, in which Darwin weakened his argument in an attempt to meet criticism such as those of Kelvin and Jenkin.
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1837 back from the journey, 1844 came to sketch of conclusion Mr Wallace and Darwin came ...
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