《The Design of Everyday Things》的笔记-Notes
- 2016-05-31 09:31:35
Design Psychology **1. Human thought: Mostly Subconscious**Because we are only aware of the reflective level of conscious processing, we tend to believe that all human thought is conscious. But it isn't. We also tend to believe that thought can be separated from emotion. This is als false.**Cognition and Emotion **Cognitive thoughts lead to emotions: emotions drive cognitive thoughts. The brain is structured to act upon the world, and every action carries with its expectations, and these expectations drive emotions. That is why much of language is based on physical metaphors, why the body and its interaction with the environment are essential components of human thought. Emoton is highly underrated. In fact, the emotional system is a powerful information processing system that works in tandem with cognition. Cognition attemps to make sense of the world: emotion assigns value. It is the emotional system that determins whether a situation is safe or threatening, whether something that is happening is good or bad, desirable or not. Cognition provides understanding: emotion provide value judegements. A human without a working emtional system has difficulty making choices. A human without cognitive system is dyfunctional. **Subconscious Thought & Conscious Thought**Subconscious thought matches patterns, finding the best possible match of one's past experience to the current one. It is good at detecting general trends, at recognizing the relationship between what we now experience and what has happened in the past. Subconscious thought is biased toward regularity and structure, and it is limited in formal power. Conscious thought is quite different. It is slow and labored. Here is where we slowly ponder decision, think through alternatives, compare different choices. A positive emtional state is ideal for creative thought, but it is not very well suited for getting things done. A brain in a negative emtional state provides focus: precisely what is needed to maintain attention on a task and finish it. Too much , however, and we get tunnel vision, where people are unable to look beyond their narrow point of view. **Three levels of Processing within the Brain**The Visceral Level: These are part of basic protecrive mechanisms of the human affective system, making quick judgements about the environment: good or bad, safe or dangerous. The visceral system allows us to respond quickly and subconciously, without conscious awareness or control. Note that the visceral level responds to the immediate present and produces an affecive state, relatively unaffected by context or history. Visceral responses are fast and completely subconscious. They are sensitive only to the current state of things. Most scientists do not call these emotions: they are precusors to emotion. Stand at the edge of a cliff and you will experience a visceral response.For designer, the visceral response is about immediate perception: the pleasantness of a mellow, harmonious sound or the jarring, irritating scratch of fingernails on a rough surface. Here is where the style matters: appearances, whether sound or sight, touch or smell, drive the visceral response. This is has nothing to do with how usable, effective, or understandable the product is. It is all about attraction or repulsion. Great designers use their aesthetic sensibilities to drive these visceral responses. The Behavioral Level:It is the home of learned skills, triggerby the situations that match the appropriate patterns. Action and analyses at this level are largely subconscious. Even though we are usually aware of our action, we are often unaware of the details. When we speak, we often do not know what wer are about to say until our conscious mind hears ourselves uttering the words. When we perform a well-learned action, all we have to do is think of the goal and the behavioral level handles all the details: the conscious mind has little or no awareness beyond creating desire to act. For designer, the most critical aspect of the behavioral level is that every action is associated with an expectation. Expect a postive outcome and the result is positive affective response. Behavioral states are learned. They give rise to a feeeling of control when there is good understanding and knowledge of results and frustration and anger when things do not go as planeed, and especially when neither the reason nor the possible remedies are known. Feedback is critical to managing expectations, and good design provides this. Expectations play an important role in our emotional lives. The Reflective Level:The reflective level is the home of conscious cognition. Reflection is cognitive, deep, and slow. It often occurs after the events have happened. The highest levels of emotions come from the reflective level, for it is here that causes are assigned and where prediction of the future take place.For designer, reflection is perhaps the most important of the levels of processing. Reflective responses are part of our memory of events. Memories last far longer than immediate experience or the period of usage, which are the domains of the visceral and behavioral levels. It is reflection that drive us to recommend a product, to recommend that others use it -- or perhaps to avoid it. Reflective memories are often more important than reality. If we have a strong positive visceral respons but disappointing usability problems at the behavioral level, when we reflect back upon the product, the reflective level might very well weigh the positive response strongly enough to overlook the severe behavioral difficulties. Similarly, too much frustration, especially toward the ending stage of use, and our reflection about the experience might overlook the positive visceral qualities. Amusement parts are experts at balancing the conflicting responses of the emotional stages, providing rides and fun houses that trigger fear responses from the visceral and behavioral levels, while all the time providing reasurance at the reflective level that the park would never subject anyone at real danger. **Falsely Blaming Youself**People are innately disposed to look for causes of eents, to form explanations and stories. We attribute causes to events, and as long as these cause-and-effect pairtings make sense, we accept them and use them for understanding future events. Conceptual models are often constructed from fragmentary eveidence. It is that everyone forms stories to explain what they have observed. In the absence of external information, people can let their imagination run free as long as the conceptual model they develop account fo the facts as they perceive them. This creates a conspiracy of silence, where the feelings of guilt and helplessness among people are kept hidden. **The Positive Psychology**We need to remove the word failure from our vocabulary, replacing it instead with learning experience. To fail is to learn: we learn more from our failures than from our successes. If designers and researches do not sometimes fail, it is a sign that they are not trying hard enough.Philosophy for designer to follow: 1. do not blame people when they fail to use your product properly; 2. take people's difficulties as signifier of where the product can be improved; Human error usually is a result of poor design: it should be called system error. Humans err continually; it is an intrinsic part of our nature. System design should take this into account. Blaming the person without fixing the root, underlying cause does not fix the problem. Designers should take special pains to make errors as cost-free as possible.We are creative and imaginative, not mechanical and precise. Machines require recision and accuracy; people don't. And we are particularly bad at providing precise and accurate inputs. So why are we always required to do so? Why do we put the requirements of machines above those of people? When people interact with machines, things will not always go so smoothly. This is to be expected. So designers should anticipate this. It is easy to design devices that work well when everything goes as planned. The hard and necessary part of design is to make thingks work well even when things do not go as planned.
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