《Thinking, Fast and Slow》的笔记-笔记
- 2019-03-12 11:50:09
at age four a child effortlessly conforms to the rules of grammar as she speaks, although she has no idea that such rules exist.We proposed that they used resemblance as a simplifying heuristic (roughly, a rule of thumb) to make a difficult judgment. The reliance on the heuristic caused predictable biases (systematic errors) in their predictions.
类似引发联想，然后做出决定，这种决定具有bias。（相关意味着因果？人类思维也是这样？如果如此，<The book of why> 怎么办。）My intuitive impression could be due entirely to journalists’ choices of topics and to my reliance on the availability heuristic.
思考被媒体影响。<娱乐至死>，美国大选。So "It is no accident that authoritarian regimes exert substantial pressure on independent media."A recurrent theme of this book is that luck plays a large role in every story of success;
真够让人垂头丧气的。an answer may come to mind quickly—but it is not an answer to the original question. The question that the executive faced (should I invest in Ford stock?) was difficult, but the answer to an easier and related question (do I like Ford cars?) came readily to his mind and determined his choice.
不知不觉我们就转化了问题。。。but statistics requires thinking about many things at once, which is something that System 1 is not designed to do.our excessive confidence in what we believe we know, and our apparent inability to acknowledge the full extent of our ignorance and the uncertainty of the world we live in. We are prone to overestimate how much we understand about the world and to underestimate the role of chance in events.
两个系统。fast and slow。当我们看图像的时候是fast thinking，计算的时候是slow thinking。对于AI来说（现在），刚好反过来：计算很简单，看图片？抱歉我要调用我的神经网络和GPU了，申请超频。
Chapter 2 Attention and EffortYou have chosen to believe the measurement, but you cannot prevent System 1 from doing its thing; you cannot decide to see the lines as equal, although you know they are.
错觉不能被消除，我们只能记住结论。we were not being taught to be generally suspicious of our feelings about patients. We were told that a strong attraction to a patient with a repeated history of failed treatment is a danger sign...
哈哈，心理学家也无法对抗System 1的影响。This matters, because anything that occupies your working memory reduces your ability to think.
简化对这两个系统的叫法不是没有原因的。这句有当头棒喝的感觉。and one of its main characteristics is laziness...
System 2需要努力，因此我们就越偷懒不想用它。“spare capacity” is allocated second by second to other tasks.
系统2是一秒一秒分给任务的。Studies of the brain have shown that the pattern of activity associated with an action changes as skill increases, with fewer brain regions involved. Talent has similar effects.
技能上升，大脑占用区域减少。天才的大脑表现类似。这是和“一万小时法则”， “舒适区”相通的，越练习越在舒适区越不需要努力，在舒适区之后做事事倍功半，很容易累。The law asserts that if there are several ways of achieving the same goal, people will eventually gravitate to the least demanding course of action.
如果多种方法达到相同效果，人们倾向于选容易的。这也是为什么我们会懒。However, the ability to control attention is not simply a measure of intelligence;
控制注意力并不意味着智慧。但反过来应该是吧。We cover long distances by taking our time and conduct our mental lives by the law of least effort.
Chapter 3. The Lazy Controller
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