- 页码：第165页 2019-06-11 17:35:39
During the post–World War II period, graphic designers in Switzerland honed ideas from the New Typography into a total design methodology. It was at this time that the term grid (Raster) became commonly applied to page layout. Max Bill, Karl Gerstner, Josef Müller-Brockmann, Emil Ruder, and others were practitioners and theorists of a new rationalism that aimed to catalyze an honest and democratic society. Rejecting the artistic clichés of self expression and raw intuition, they aspired to what Ruder called “a cool and fascinating beauty.”
Gerstner’s book Designing Programmes (1964) is a manifesto for systemsoriented design. Gerstner defined a design “programme” as a set of rules for constructing a range of visual solutions. Connecting his methodology with the new field of computer programming, Gerstner presented examples of computer-generated patterns that were made by mathematically describing visual elements and combining them according to simple rules.
Expanding on the pioneering ideas of Bayer, Tschichold, Renner, and other designers of the avant garde, the Swiss rationalists rejected the centuries-old model of the page-as-frame in favor of a continuous architectural space. Whereas a traditional book would have placed captions, commentary, and folios within a protective margin, the rationalist grid cut the page into multiple columns, each bearing equal weight within the whole, suggesting an indefinite progression outward. Pictures were cropped to fit the modules of the grid, yielding shapes of unusual proportion. Constructing ever more elaborate grids, the Swiss designers used the confines of a repeated structure to generate variation and surprise. Such grids could be activated in numerous ways within a single publication, always referring back to the root structure.
This approach, which quickly became known as “Swiss design,” found adherents (and detractors) around the world. Many American designers dismissed Swiss rationalism as irrelevant to a society driven by pop culture and hungry for rapidly transforming styles. Programmatic thinking is now being revived, however, as designers today confront large-scale information projects. The need is greater than ever for flexible “programs” designed to accommodate dynamic bodies of content.
在第二次世界大战后期间，瑞士的平面设计师将新版画中的创意磨练成一种全面的设计方法。正是在这个时候，术语网格（栅格）变得普遍应用于页面布局。Max Bill，Karl Gerstner，JosefMüller-Brockmann，Emil Ruder和其他人都是新理性主义的实践者和理论家，旨在促进一个诚实和民主的社会。他们拒绝接受自我表达和原始直觉的艺术陈词滥调，他们渴望罗德称之为“一种酷炫迷人的美丽。”Gerstner的书“设计程序”（1964）是面向系统设计的宣言。Gerstner将设计“程序”定义为一组用于构建一系列视觉解决方案的规则。将他的方法与计算机编程的新领域联系起来，Gerstner提供了计算机生成模式的例子，这些模式是通过数学描述视觉元素并根据简单规则将它们组合而制成的。瑞士理性主义者扩展了拜耳，Tschichold，Renner和其他前卫设计师的开创性思想，拒绝了数百年来的页面框架模型，转而支持连续的建筑空间。虽然传统书籍会在保护范围内放置字幕，评论和作品集，但理性主义网格会将页面切割成多个列，每个列在整体中具有相同的权重，表明向外无限延伸。图片被裁剪以适应网格模块，产生不寻常比例的形状。瑞士设计师构建了更为精细的网格，利用重复结构的限制来产生变化和惊喜。这样的网格可以在单个出版物中以多种方式激活，总是返回根结构。这种方法很快被称为“瑞士设计”，在世界各地发现了追随者（和批评者）。许多美国设计师认为瑞士理性主义与流行文化驱动的社会无关，而且渴望迅速转变风格。然而，程序化思维正在复兴，因为今天的设计师正面临着大规模的信息项目。对于旨在容纳动态内容的灵活“程序”，需求比以往任何时候都大。
xiaou对本书的所有笔记 · · · · · ·
dividing space In the nineteenth century, the multi-columned, multimedia pages of newsp...
Jan Tschichold’s book The New Typography, published in Germany in 1928, took ideas fro...
golden section No book about typography would be complete without a discussion of the g...
Every time you open a new document in a page layout program, you are prompted to create...
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