《How to Become a Straight-A Student》的笔记-第1页
- 章节名：One-page notes about this book
- 页码：第1页 2019-08-01 15:32:19
how to:• Manage your time and deal with the urge to procrastinate.• Take targeted notes in class.• Handle reading assignments and problem sets with ease.• Prepare efficiently for exams.• Master the art of exam-taking.• Write incisive critical analysis essays.• Conduct thorough research.• Write standout term papers.If these new techniques work, keep them; if they fail, replace them with something else.work accomplished = time spent x intensity of focustechnique is just as important as timingStep 1 Manage Your Time in Five Minutes a DayAs Doris, a straight-A student from Harvard, states: “Time management is critical—it’s a skill that you absolutely must develop over the course of your time at college.”Basic control over your schedule breeds balance.1. Requires no more than five to ten minutes of effort in a single twenty-four-hour period. 2. Doesn’t force an unchangeable minute-by-minute schedule on your day. 3. Helps you remember, plan, and complete important tasks before the very last moment. 4. Can be quickly restarted after periods of neglect.Record all of your to-dos and deadlines on your calendar. This becomes your master schedule.you need to deal with your calendar only once every twenty-four hours.whenever you encounter a new to-do or deadline, simply jot it down on your list. The next morning, you can transfer this new stuff from your list onto your calendar, where it’s safe.(1) Jot down new tasks and assignments on your list during the day;(2) next morning, transfer these new items from your list onto your calendar;(3) then take a couple of minutes to plan your day.Update Your Calendar Each MorningWrite the deadlines on the appropriate dates, and write the to-dos on the days when you plan to complete them.You can move these items around on your calendar as many times as you want, so don’t worry too much about which date you initially choose for a new to-do.Next, move the to-dos that you planned for yesterday, but didn’t complete, to new days on your calendar.Go ahead and trash yesterday’s list—Divide it into two columns, as shown in Figure 1, and label them Today’s Schedule and Things to Remember , respectively.Your goal is to figure out how much of this work you can realistically accomplish.You might be tempted to simply copy all of these tasks into your Today’s Schedule column and then treat it as a simple to-do list for the day. Don’t do this!Try to label each of your to-dos for the day with a specific time period during which you are going to complete it. Be honest.And be reasonable about how long things really take.For simplicity, group many little tasks (errands that take less than ten minutes) into one big block.Leave plenty of time for breaks. Give yourself an hour for meals, not twenty minutes.end your day at an appropriate hour.In general—though it may seem counterintuitive—be pessimistic.Remember, the goal here is not to squeeze everything into one day at all costs, but rather to find out how many of the tasks listed for the day you actually have time to accomplish.Your final step is to record the tasks you will have time for into the Today’s Schedule column of your list.The specific times on your schedule aren’t set in stone—they’re more of a suggestion.If you overestimate your free time, then you are likely to put off work until it’s too late. And this leads to all-nighters, panic attacks, and shoddy performance.Use the List During the Dayto-dos and deadlines that exist only in your mind drain your energy, distract your attention, create stress, and are more likely to be forgotten.When you’re working, you should be able to concentrate on working, and when you’re relaxing, you should be able to enjoy relaxing.Restarting After a Period of NeglectIf you skip a few days, all you need to do upon restarting is to dump all the to-dos and deadlines free floating in your mind onto a sheet of paper and then push these back onto your calendar for future dates.Keep a work progress journalProcrastination Battle Plan #2: Feed the Machine1. Drink water constantly. Have a water bottle with you, or make frequent trips to the water fountain.Hydration increases your energy, masks boredom-induced food cravings, and staves off sleepiness.2. Monitor your caffeine intake carefully. Don’t drink more than one large caffeinated beverage in any one-hour period.If you’re a coffee drinker, start off with a strong brew to jump-start your mind, but switch to decaf, tea, or just water for the next hour or two before returning to another strong drink……too much caffeine in a short period will make you jumpy and unfocused.3. Treat food as a source of energy, not satisfaction. Try vegetables, fruit, anything whole grain, lean proteins, peanuts, or natural granola bars.4. Don’t skip meals. Snacks alone are not enough to fuel your mind for long periods. Even on the busiest of days, eat regular meals. Hunger, and the corresponding low blood sugar, will rob you of your ability to concentrate and set you up to succumb to procrastination.Procrastination Battle Plan #4: Build a routineMake an event out of the worst tasksProcrastination Battle Plan #5: Choose your hard daysYou can’t avoid these hard days, but you can control their impact.Choose When, Where, and How LongQUESTION: When is the best time to study? ANSWER: Early.“Where should you study?” for more advice on choosing the right locations). The idea here is not to become antisocial.“Work hard, play hard” is always better than “Work kind of hard, play kind of hard.”QUESTION: Where should you study? ANSWER: In isolation.“Studying in bed has never worked.”QUESTION: How long should you study? ANSWER: No more than one hour at a time without a break.“Studies suggest you should study in 40 or 50 minute increments for maximum retention. After approximately 40 minutes, take a short break (5 minutes) and continue studying.Step #1. Manage Your Time in Five Minutes a DayJot down to-dos and deadlines on a list whenever they arise. • Transfer these to-dos and deadlines to your calendar every morning. • Plan your day each morning by labeling your to-dos with realistic time frames and moving what you don’t have time for to different dates.Step #2. Declare War on ProcrastinationKeep a work progress journal, and every day record what you wanted to accomplish and whether or not you succeeded. • When working, eat healthy snacks to maximize your energy. • Transform horrible tasks into a big event to help you gather the energy to start. • Build work routines to make steady progress on your obligations without expending too much of your limited motivational resources. • Choose your hard days in advance to minimize their impact.Step #3. Choose When, Where, and How Long • Try to fit as much work as possible into the morning and afternoon, between classes and obligations. • Study in isolated locations. • Take a break every hour.If the test is worth less than 15 percent of your final grade, it’s a quiz; otherwise, it’s an exam. If the test is worth only 5 percent or less of your grade, designate this a tiny quiz .Don’t spend too much time on tiny quizzes.Step 1 Take Smart NotesFirst things first: Always go to class! if you skip class, “it’ll take twice as long studying to make up for what you missed.” This is why class attendance is so important.Keep this in mind: Note-taking is an art form.“Use your laptop. Seriously! You will be overwhelmed by the quality and legibility of your notes…it’s really a no-brainer.”If you don’t have a laptop, then make sure you have one notebook for every class and a pen that you are comfortable with.Try to write clearly. You might even consider typing summaries of your notes at the end of each week.For math, science, economics, and engineering courses that are heavy on numbers and equations, pencil and paper are acceptable.you should also have one folder for each class. Every piece of paper you receive during a lecture—outlines, assignment descriptions, reading excerpts—should be dated and put in this folder.“A lot of students focus on making their notebooks look pretty and then forget about the content.”Put your notes on your laptop and your loose papers in a folder, and you’ll be fine.Take Smart Notes in Nontechnical Courses (What’s the Big Idea?)A “nontechnical course” refers to any course outside of math, science, economics, and engineering.The key to doing well in these courses is straightforward: Identify the big ideas.The solution is to figure out how to take notes that clearly identify and explain all of the big ideas that are presented so that you can review them later without spending any extra time.When you first arrive at the classroom, date your notes and record the title of the day’s lecture, if it’s available.If you’re using a laptop, create a separate notes directory for each class.Save your document in this folder with the date in the file name. This will make it easier to organize the material when you review.If you’re defining a word, make it bold. If you’re writing down an exception to the last observation you recorded, start with: “HOWEVER:…”Capture Big Ideas by Using the Question/Evidence/Conclusion Structureremember the following structure: Question Evidence ConclusionProfessional academics think in terms of questions. This is how they see the world.You should take advantage of this reality by recording all your notes in a Question/Evidence/Conclusion format.The more classes you take, the better you will become at summarizing a complicated conclusion.Take full advantage of lulls in the lecture.If you’re not rushed, spend five minutes after class to polish your notes before packing up.Clearly label the topic of the discussion.If a student makes a point that strikes you as insightful, jot it down. If you think up a point that strikes you as insightful, first jot it down, then raise your hand and offer it to the class. Participation keeps you focused.if the professor chimes in, write down what he says and underline it several times.By the end of class, you will be left with a topic followed by a relatively short list of interesting insights. That’s all you need.Take Smart Notes in Technical Courses (Where’s the Problem?)The key to taking notes in a technical course is to record as many sample problems as possible.Don’t Read Your Assignments, but Do Keep Them Handy. Because the exact same material will be covered in class.First priority: Record the problem statement and answer.Second priority: Question the confusing.Write a bunch of question marks or circle the line in your notes; this will help you later when you study.So raise your hand, be confident, and ask away!the more questions you get answered in class, the less legwork you will have to do later.Third priority: Record the steps of the sample problem.Final priority: Annotate the steps.Step 2 Demote Your Assignmentsif you have a problem set due every week, complete one problem a day, one hour at a time. Don’t spend five hours the night before.Once you get used to working a little bit every day, you’ll be surprised by how often this situation might arise.Always read the assignments from favored sources .Readings that make an argument are more important than readings that describe an event or person , which are more important than readings that only provide context (i.e., speech transcripts, press clippings).In a course with no favored sources, readings that directly address the specific topic of the lecture act as the favored sources for the day.“If you pay close attention in class and take good notes, much of the reading is often unnecessary.”Take Smart Notes on Your Favored Reading AssignmentsFirst, as with lectures, try to take notes on your computer. They will be more organized and easier to follow later on, when you use them for review.Next, carefully read the beginning of the assignment. Look for the question being answered by the author.Note that this is different than a thesis statement.Search the first few paragraphs; this is typically where the conclusion is hidden.Also check the final few paragraphs. Often a thesis is proposed at the beginning of an article but then refined slightly at the end once all of the supporting evidence has been presented. When you feel confident in your understanding of the conclusion, record it carefully in your notes.Now comes the easy part: Skim the entire reading. Don’t take notes yet.Your goal is simply to mark a few solid examples that justify the conclusion as the answer to the question.Once you have skimmed through the entire reading, go back and find your check marks. For each mark, record in your notes a concise summary of the corresponding point. Label each point in your notes with the page number where you found it. This shouldn’t take long.“can drastically cut the time required to finish a really hard problem set.”Working with a group can help you bypass these mental blocks.First, set aside a little block of time to familiarize yourself with a couple of problems, and make sure you understand exactly what is being asked.Next, try to solve the problem in the most obvious way possible.The next step is counterintuitive.After you’ve primed the problem, put away your notes and move on to something else.go slowly and deliberately the first time.Write your answer carefully, and clean it up immediately until it is of submission quality.First, organize your material intelligently. Second, perform a targeted review of this material.“It’s helpful to know in advance what kind of knowledge will be asked for on the exam—IDs, dates, broad syntheses of the texts’ major arguments?”Is the exam open note or open book?For a technical class, will formulas be provided or do they need to be memorized?How much time will be available? Does the professor expect the exam to be easy to complete during the test period or a challenge?Which lectures and reading assignments (or problem sets) are fair game?What type of questions will there be, and how many of each?1. Match the lecture to the problem set that covers the same material. 2. Copy sample problems from these lecture notes onto a blank sheet of paper. You don’t have to copy the steps or the answers, just the questions. 3. Label the blank sheet of paper with the date of the lecture. This will help you later figure out where these problems came from (and more important, where their answers can be found). 4. Fasten this sheet with a paper clip to the problem set you matched it to in step one.If your professor makes a practice exam available, then print out a copy of it and store it with your mega-problem sets.start writing up your cards at least a week before the first day you plan to actually study.Buy a stack of index cards, put the prompt on one side and the answer on the other.Whether it’s philosophy or calculus, the most effective way to imprint a concept is to first review it and then try to explain it, unaided, in your own words.“Simply reading it over doesn’t work. You have to make the extra effort to get it into your head.”If you can answer all the questions, then you understand all the big ideas.Don’t do this only in your head! If you’re in a private location, say your answers out loud using complete sentences.“[The quiz-and-recall method] takes much less time than people think it does—one day to make the quizzes for the term, and only a few hours to review.”If you’re just regurgitating memorized solutions, you aren’t prepared to handle newBe honest with yourself: If you’re just regurgitating memorized solutions, you aren’t prepared to handle new questions on a test.Follow this method until you finish a round with no checked problems. When this happens, you’re done.dates, artists, chronologies, formulas—there are, unfortunately, no real shortcuts. You just have to keep working with your flash cards until you have no trouble providing the right answer, even after you shuffle the cards into a random order.Eliminate your question marks .The key is to start this process well before the exam.Ask questions during class. “When in doubt, I just ask questions in class for more clarification,” explains Worasom from Brown. If a topic slides by you, raise your hand and ask for a clarification. The more question marks you eliminate on the spot, the less work you will have to do later.Develop the habit of talking to your professor briefly after class.Most professors will stick around for five or ten minutes after the bell to answer final questions. Take advantage of this time. When the class ends, head over to the professor and see how many of the question marks of the day you can get eliminated. You should then immediately correct your notes before you forget the explanations.Ask classmates. If you’re still unclearBefore you arrive (class), jot down all of the topics from your notes that you are still unsure about. Then, during the session, try to get all of them answered.Strategy #1: Review First, Answer Questions LaterStrategy #2: Build a Time BudgetFirst, take the time allotted for the exam and subtract ten minutes. Next, divide this amount by the number of questions. The result is how long you have to spend on each prompt.Strategy #3: Proceed from Easy to HardStrategy #4: Outline EssaysInstead, your first step should be to jot down a quick outline.First, reread the question carefully.“Usually, you can isolate three or four mini-questions from a single essay question.” Underline each of these mini-questions; this will help you flesh out your outline and avoid an incomplete answer.“Then, outline on paper (not in your head) the way that you will use what you know to answer these mini-questions,”Next, go back and check the question parts you underlined in the first step. Make sure each is adequately addressed by the points you just noted in the margin. When you’re sure that you have identified all the relevant information for the essay, number these points in the order that you want to present them.Follow your outline, and the writing will proceed smoothly. You should be able to quickly produce a solid response that draws on everything you reviewed and addresses all parts of the question asked.Strategy #5: Check Your WorkNeatness doesn’t count on exams; it’s the content that matters.
说明 · · · · · ·