Sunny对《The Beautiful Cure》的笔记(4)

The Beautiful Cure
  • 书名: The Beautiful Cure
  • 作者: Daniel M Davis
  • 副标题: The Revolution in Immunology and What It Means for Your Health
  • 页数: 256
  • 出版社: University of Chicago Press
  • 出版年: 2018-9-28
  • 第111页
    While our immune system can often suppress or destroy cancer, it can also do the opposite, and there are at least two ways in which cancers can benefit from an immune response, problems that may then be made worse by heat. First, many cancer cells coopt features of immune cells - by expressing sets of protein molecules used by immune cells - so that they themselves respond to cytokines and other secretions produced during inflammation. This allows cancer cells to hijack the cues immune cells use to multiply and move around the body, so that they too grow, expand and spread. SEcond, solid tumours sometimes benefit from local inflammation because this can increase the tumour's supply of nutrients and oxygen. In face, immune cells can be so beneficial to cancer cells that instead of evading an immune attack, some tumours secrete protein molecules specifically to attract immune cells to live inside them. These tumours often secrete hormones to alter the nature of the immune response at the site of the tumour, switching of the immune cells' capability to attack while maintaining a tumour- promoting local inflammation.
    引自第111页
    2019-01-17 10:15:53 回应
  • 第134页 Time and S[ace
    As Foster discovered, the hypothalamus clock takes cues from special cells in the eye, but this doesn't drive the body's rhythm all on its own. While the hypothalamus clock acts as conductor, harmonizing the ensemble, the players - all the rest of our body's cells and tissues - are quite capable of keeping their own time, as their own genes and proteins wax and wane. Even red blood cells, which has no nucleus or genes of their own, oscillate their activity for many days without any external cues. The problem fr night-shift workers is that as they alter the timing of activity, digestion and sleep, affecting the clocks that re running in various tissues and organs, the master clock in the brain continues to follow the light and dark of day and night: the conductor falls out of sync with the ensemble. We can recover from, say, jet lag when all of our body clocks shift to adopt a new twenty-four-hour cycle, but there's no simple way for the body to get used to night-shift work because clocks running in some tissues and organs will always be out of sync with the hypothalamus clock. P 141 Cancer occurs, after all, when a cell multiplies excessively, while ageing, on the other hand, is the process by which a cell does the opposite, either entering a programme of events called apoptosis that leads to the cell's death or entering a state called senescent cells accumulate in the body over a lifetiem - espcially in the skin, liver, lung and spleen - and have both beneficial and detrimental effects. they are beneficial because they secrete factors which help repair damaged tissue, but over a long period of time, as senescent cells increase in number, they can disrupt the normal structure of organs and tissues. These cells could be an underlying cause of many of the problems we associate with ageing. Even mice already showing signs of ageing could improve their muscle structure and fitness when senescent cells were cleared. A final possibility worth mentioning here is that the genes which make us age might be passed on from one generation to the next simply because they have some positive benefit to us when we are young and their negative side effects are manifest only after we have reproduced, so aren't strongly selected against.
    引自 Time and S[ace
    2019-01-18 10:46:23 回应
  • 第164页 The Guardian Cells

    One type of alarmin that is released when the lining of the gut is damaged switches on regulatory T cells rather than normal T cells. This turns off the immune system rather than switching it on. Although damage indicates a problem that may bery well be due to an infection that warrants an immune responese, restrait is also needed to prevent the immune system from spiralling out of control and causing more damage. The level at which this alarmin dampens an immune response is altered by the levels of other molecules present, including sytokines that are themselves signifcant of levels of invading germs. An inner universe of small molecules, of metabolites, alarmins and cytokines, reflecting the present of different gut bacteria, invading germs or damaged cells, all dial the activity of the immune system up and down.

    P 169

    Vegetable fibre or supplements which encourages gut bacteria to multiply - so-called prebiotics - could feasibly nudge the state of our immune system to our benefit, but it's difficult when nuturing one kind of bacteria to ensure that a closely related but detrimental species of bacteria doesn't also thrive. Another idea is to ingest live bacterial, in yoghurt or other foods - so-called probiotics - which could also feasibly shift the make-up of our gut microbiome and in turn impact the state of our immune system. The design of food supplements, which are not currently evaluated in the same way that medicines are, will undoubtedly become more sophisticated, more precise and more medical, as our understanding improves.

    2019-01-20 09:57:51 回应
  • 第177页 Future Medicines
    Dendritic cells are particularly good at detecting germs. When they do so, they signal to T cells that a germ is present - providing the second signal needed to kick-start an immune reaction - by displaying so-called co-stimulatory proteins at their surface. These proteins on the dendritic cells fit into receptor proteins on the surface of T cells that was uncannily similar - about 30% identical - to the one "unlocked" by co-stimulatory proteins, but whose role in our immune system remained a mystery. p188 One way that CTLA-4 puts a brake on T cells is by locking ono and covering up stimulatory proteins on other cells - effectively masking the immune system's alarm signals. But as well as this, CTLA-4 is able to grab co-stimulatory proteins on other immune cells and nt just mask them but rip them off and have them destroyed, effectively hoovering up the system's alarm signals altogether. And that's not all. In fact, as well as being a brake on immune cells, CTLA-4 also an accelerator, in the sense that it is able to make immune cells move faster. This has at least two consequences. First, it reduces the contact time between immune cells, which reduces their ability to interact and dampens the overall response. Second, it makes it harder for fast-moving immune cells to hold onto a cancer cell long enough to kill it. Presumably, blcoking CTLA-4 helps cancer patients by stopping some of these process. But it perhaps does something else too.
    引自 Future Medicines
    2019-01-20 10:21:19 回应

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