AsuraHu对《管理学》的笔记(20)

AsuraHu
AsuraHu (忧乐未知,陌阡不识.)

读过 管理学

管理学
  • 书名: 管理学
  • 作者: (美)斯蒂芬·P.罗宾斯//玛丽·库尔特
  • 页数: 706
  • 出版社: 清华大学
  • 出版年: 2009-6
  • Chapter One Introduction to management and organizations

    -Managers are the organization members who tell others what to two and how to do it. -Non-managerial employees:Those organizational members who worked directly on a job or task and had no one reporting to them -A manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished. -Not personal achievement but helping others do their job. -First-line managers:the lowest level of management,manage the work of non managerial employees who typically are involved with producing the organization's products or servicing the organization's customers.(Title: supervisor, shift managers, district managers, department managers, office managers, foreperson) -Middle managers include all levels of management between the first level and the top level of the organization.(Title:regional manager, project leader, plant manager, division manager) -Top managers, who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization.(Title: executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officers, chief executive officer or chairperson.) -Main part of the work of managers: 1)Strategy. To figure out what the company should do to become more valuable and to produce returns for shareholders, as well as to add something to the world. 2)Execution 3)Culture and people. To set the tone for a company environment and way of behaving in which we can all be most productive -Managers set the goals, the agenda, the measures of achievement and the standard of behavior. -Management:coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively -Efficiency refers to getting the most output from the least amount of inputs.(Do things right)——Resource usage with low waste -Effectiveness refers to doing those work activities that will help the organization reach its goals.(Do the right things)——High goal attainment Management Function: -Planning: 1)Defining goals 2)Establishing strategy for achieving those goals 3)Developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities -Organizing: 1)Determining what needs to be done, how it will be done and who is to do it. 2)Arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization's goes -Leading: 1)Motivating 2)Leading 3)Other actions involved in dealing with people -Controlling 1)Monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned. 2)Comparing 3)Correcting work performance Management role's: specific categories of managerial behavior -Interpersonal roles: involve people (subordinates and persons outside the organization) and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. 1)Figure head 2)Leader 3)Liaison -Informational roles:involve collecting, receiving and disseminating information 1)Monitor 2)Disseminator 3)Spokesperson -Decisional roles:revolve around making choices. 1)Entrepreneur 2)Disturbance Handler 3)Resource allocator 4)Negotiator -A higher level of organization , the roles of disseminator, figurehead, negotiator, liaison and spokesperson are more important; the leader role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle or top-level leaders. -Technical skills: the job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks.(These skills tend to be more important for lower-level managers because they typically are managing employees who are using tools and techniques to produce the organization's products or service the organization's customers. -Human skills: involve the ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group.(Because managers deal directly with people, these skills are essential and equally important at all levels of management) -Conceptual Skills: skills managers use to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situation.(Using these skills, managers must see the organization as a whole, understand the relationships among various subunits, and visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. These skills are most important at the top management levels) -Conceptual skills 1)Ability to use information to solve business problems 2)Identification of opportunities for innovation 3)Recognizing problem areas and implementing solution 4)Selecting critical information from masses of data 5)Understanding of business uses of technology 6)Understanding of organization's business model -Communication skills 1)Ability to transform ideas into words and actions 2)Credibility among colleagues, peers and subordinates 3)Listening and asking questions 4)Presentation skills; spoken format 5)Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats -Effectiveness skills 1)Contributing to corporate mission/departmental objectives 2)Customer focus 3)Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel 4)Negotiating skills 5)Project management 6)Reviewing operations and implementing improvements 7)Setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally 8)Setting priorities for attention and activity 9)Time management -Interpersonal skilss 1)Coaching and mentoring skills 2)Diversity skills: working with diverse people and cultures 3)Networking within the organization 4)Networking outside the organization 5)Working in teams; cooperation and commitment Changes impacting the manager's job -Changing Technology(Digitization)——Shifting organizational boundaries; Virtual workplaces; More mobile workforce; Flexible work arrangements; Empowered employees -Increased Security Threats——Risk management; Work life-personal life balance; Restructured workplace; Discrimination concerns; Globalization concerns; Employee assistance -Increased Emphasis on Organizational and Managerial Ethics——Redefined values; Rebuilding trust; Increased accountability -Increased Competitiveness——Customer service; Innovation; Globalization; Efficiency/Productivity -Innovation means doing things differently, exploring new territory and taking risks -Someone had to create and maintain an environment in which employees felt free to innovate and someone had to act on the idea. -An organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. -An organization = People + Distinct Purpose + Deliberate Structure -This purpose is typically expressed in terms of a goal or set of goals that the organization hopes to accomplish. -Management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels and in all organizational work areas, and in all organizations, no matter what country they're located in .This is known as the universality of management. Reward -Create a work environment in which organizational members can work to the best of their ability -Have opportunities to think creatively and use imagination -Help others find meaning and fulfillment in work -Support, coach and nurture others -Work with a variety of people -Receive recognition and status in organization and community -Play a role in influencing organizational outcomes -Receive recognition and status in organization and community -Play a role in influencing organizational outcomes -Receive appropriate compensation in form of salaries, bonuses, and stock options. Challenges -Do hard work -May have duties that are more clerical than managerial -Have to deal with a variety of personalities -Often have to make do with limited resources -Motivate workers in chaotic and uncertain situations -Successfully blend knowledge, skills, ambition, and experiences of a diverse work group -Success depends on others' work performance

    2012-08-10 19:12:12 2人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 2 Management Yesterday and Today

    -Division of labor ( Job specialization ): the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks. -Industrial revolution: The substitution of machine power for human power, which made it more economical to manufacture goods in factories rather than at home. -Management theories: 1)Scientific management 2)General administrative theorists 3)Quantitative approach 4)Organizational behavior、early advocates、Hawthorne Studies 5)Systems approach 6)Contingency approach -Scientific management: the use of scientific methods to define the “ one best way “ for a job to be done. -Taylor’s four principles of management: 1)Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method. 2)Scientifically select and then train, teach and develop the worker. 3)Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. 4)Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers. -Therbligs:A classification scheme for labeling 17 basic hand motions/ -General administrative theory: A theory of management that focused on describing what managers do and what constitutes good management practice. -Principles of management: Fundamental rules of management that could be taught in school and applied in all management situation: 1)Division of work:Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient. 2)Authority:Management must be able to give orders and authority gives them this right. 3)Discipline:Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. 4)Unity of command. Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. 5)Unity of direction .The organization should have a single plan of action to guide managers and workers. 6)Subordination of individual interests to the general interests. The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. 7)Remuneration:Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. 8)Centralization. This term refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making . 9)Scalar chain. The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks. 10)Order.People and materials should be in the right place at the right time. 11)Equity. Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates. 12)Stability of tenure of personnel.Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. 13)Initiative. Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort. 14)Espirit de corps(团队精神):Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization. -A bureaucracy should have: 1)Division of labor: jobs broken down into simple,routine, and well-defined tasks. 2)Authority Hierarchy:positions organized in a hierarchy with a clear chain of command 3)Formal selection:People selected for jobs based on technical qualification 4)Formal rules and regulations:system of written rules and standard operating procedures 5)Impersonality:uniform application of rules and controls, not according to personalities. 6)Career orientation:managers are career professional, not owners of units they manager -Quantitative approach: The use of quantitative techniques to improve decision making.(=operations research or management science) -It involves application of statistics, optimization models, information models and computer simulations to management activities. -OB(organizational behavior):the field of study concerned with the actions(behavior) of people at work. -Hawthorne Studies -Social norms or group standards were the key determinants of individual work behavior -People’s behavior and attitudes are closely related, that group factors significantly affect individual behavior, that group standards establish individual worker output, and that money is less a factor in determining output than are group standards, group attitudes and security. -The systems approach -System:A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. -Closed systems: systems that are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment. -Open system:systems that interact with their environment. -Contingency approach: management approach that says that organizations are different, face different situation(contingencies), and require different ways of managing. -Popular contingency variables: 1)Organization size: as size increases, so do the problems of coordination. 2)Routineness of task technology:influence the organizational structures, leadership style and control system. 3)Environmental uncerntainty. 4)Individual difference. -Current trends and issues: 1)Globalization: a.working with people from different cultures; b.coping with anti-capitalist backlash; c.movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor; 2)Ethics: a.Managers need to make sure they understand the ethical dilemma they’re facing. b.It’s important to identify the stakeholders that would be affected by the decision. c.Managers should identify the factors that are important to the decision. d.What are possible alternatives? e.Make a decision and act on it. 3)Workforce diversity: A workforce that’s heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity ,age and other characteristics that reflect differences. 4)Entrepreneurship:The process of starting new businesses, generally in response to opportunities. 5)E-business(electronic business): The way an organization does its work by using electronic(Internet-based) linkages with its key constituencies(employees, managers, customers, clients, suppliers and partners) in order to efficiently and effectively achieve its goals.(e-commerce:The sales and marketing of e-business.) a. E-business enhanced organization: E-business units within traditional organization. b. E-business enabled organization:E-business tools and applications used within traditional organization. a+b=Total E-business organization:organization’s entire work processes revolve around e-business model -Intranet:A web-based internal communication system accessible only by organizational employees. 6)Knowledge management and learning organization a.Learning organization: An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt and change. b.Knowledge management: Cultivating a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather knowledge and share it with others in the organization so as to achieve better performance. 6)Quality management: A philosophy of management that is driven by continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations. a.Intense focus on the customer. b.concern for continual improvement c.process=focused. d.improvement in the quality of everything the organization does. e.Accurate measurement f.empowerment of employees.

    2012-08-18 20:01:23 2人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 3 Organizational Culture and Environment: The Constraints.

    -Omnipotent view of management: The view that managers are directly responsible for an organization’s success of failure. -Symbolic view of management:The view that much of an organization’s success or failure is due to external forces outside manager’s control. -Internal constraint come from the organization’s culture and external constraints come from the organization’s environment. -Organizational culture: The shared values, principles, traditions and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act. 1)Perception( on the basis of what they see, hear, or experience within the organization) 2)Shared aspect of culture. 3)Descriptive (rather than evaluative) -Dimensions of organizational culture: 1)Attention to detail: degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis and attention to detail. 2)Outcome Orientation:degree to which managers focus on results or outcomes rather than on how these outcomes are achieved. 3)People Orientation:degree to which management decisions take into account the effects on people in the organization. 4)Team Orientation:degree to which work is organized around teams rather than individuals 5)Aggressiveness:degree to which employees are aggressive and competitive rather than cooperative 6)Stability:degree to which organizational decisions and actions emphasize maintaining the status quo 7)Innovation and Risk Taking:degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and to take risks -Strong cultures: organizational cultures in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared. -Whether an organization’s culture is strong, weak or somewhere in between depends on factors such as the size of the organization, how long it has been around, how much turnover there has been among employees and the intensity with which the culture was originated. -Philosophy of organization’s founders——selection criteria——Top management & socialization——organization’s culture -Socialization:The process that helps employees adapt to the organization’s culture. 1)Stories 2)Rituals 3)Material Symbols 4)Language -Current organizational culture issues 1)Creating an ethical culture 2)Creating an innovative culture 3)Creating a customer-responsive culture 4)nurturing workplace spirituality -Suggestions for managers: creating a more ethical culture 1)Be a visible role model 2)Communicate ethical expectations 3)Provide ethics training 4)Visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones 5)Provide protective mechanisms so employees can discuss ethical dilemmas and report unethical behavior without fear. -Characteristics of innovative culture 1)Challenge and involvement:How much employees are involved in, motivated by, and committed to the long-term goals and success of the organization 2)Freedom:The degree to which employees can independently define their work, exercise discretion and take initiative in their day-to-day activities 3)Trust and openness:The degree to which employees are supportive and respectful to each other. 4)Idea time:The amount of time individuals have to elaborate on new ideas before taking action. 5)Playfulness and humor:How much spontaneity, fun and ease there is in the workplace 6)Conflict resolution: The degree to which individuals make decisions and resolve issues based on the good of the organization versus personal interest 7)Debates:How much employees are allowed to express their opinions and put forth their ideas for consideration and review 8)Risk taking: How much managers tolerate uncertainty and ambiguity and whether employees are rewarded for taking risks. -What does a customer-responsive culture look like? 1)The type of employees themselves. 2)Few rigid rules, procedures and regulation. 3)Widespread use of empowerment 4)Good listening skills 5)Role clarity 6)Employees who are conscientious in their desire to please the customer. -Suggestions for managers:Creating a more customer-responsive culture 1)Hire service-contact people with the personality and attitudes consistent with customer service—friendliness, enthusiasm, attentiveness, patience, concern about others and listening skills 2)Train customer service people continuously by focusing on improving product knowledge, active listening, showing patience and displaying emotions 3)Socialize new service-contact people to the organization’s goals and values 4)Design customer-service jobs so that employees have as much control as necessary to satisfy customers. 5)Empower service-contact employees with the discretion to make day-to-day decisions on job-related activities. 6)As the leader, convey a customer-focused vision and demonstrate through decisions and actions the commitment to customers. -Workplace spirituality: A culture where organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work that takes place in the context of community 1)Strong sense of purpose 2)Focus on individual development 3)Trust and openness 4)Employee empowerment 5)Toleration of employee expression -Organizations with a spiritual culture recognize that people have a mind and a spirit, seek to find meaning and purpose in their work and desire to connect with other human beings and be part of a community -External environment: those factors and forces outside the organization that affect the organization’s performance. -Specific environment: Those external forces that have a direct impact on managers’ decisions and actions and are directly relevant to the achievement of the organization’s goals.(supplier, customers, competitors, public pressure group) -General environment: broad external conditions that may affect the organization 1)Economic 2)Global, 3)Political/Legal 4)Demographics 5)Technological 6)Sociaolcultural -Environmental Uncertainty: the degree of change and complexity in the organization environment. 1)Degree of complexity: Complex & Simple(Environmental uncertainty): the number of components in an organization environment and the extent of the knowledge that the organization has about those components. a.When an organization has to deal with fewer competitors, customers, suppliers, government agencies, and so forth, the less complex and less uncertain its environment is. b. Complexity is also measured in terms of the knowledge an organization need about its environment. 2)Degree of change: Stable & Dynamic(Environmental complexity) a.If the components in an organization’s environment change frequently, we call it a dynamic environment. b.If change is minimal ,we call it a stable one. -Environmental Uncertainty Matrix -Stakeholders: Any constituencies in the organization’s environment that are affected by the organization’s decisions and actions -Why is stakeholder relationship management important? 1)It can lead to organizational outcomes such as improved predictability of environmental changes, more successful innovation, greater degree of trust among stakeholders and greater organizational flexibility to reduce the impact of change. 2)Organization depends on these external groups as sources of inputs and as outlets for outputs, and managers should consider their interests as they make decisions and take actions -How can these relationships be managed? 1)Identify who the organization’s stakeholders are. 2)Determine what particular interest or concerns these stake holders might have—product quality, financial issues, safe working conditions, environmental protection and so forth. 3)Decide how critical each stakeholder is to the organization’s decision and actions. 4)Determine how to manage the external stakeholder relationship -Stakeholders: which of the various groups might be impacted by decisions that managers make and which groups might influence those decision? 1)Employees 2)Customers 3)Social and political action groups 4)Competitors 5)Trade and industry association 6)Governments 7)Media 8)Suppliers 9)Communities 10)Shareholders 11)Unions

    2012-08-18 20:01:52 4人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 4 Managing in a Global Environment

    -Parochialism:Viewing the world solely through your own perspectives, leading to an inability to recognize difference between people -Example: monolingualism -Three global attitude: 1)Ethnocentric attitude: The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country. a.Advantages: simpler structure; more tightly controlled b.Disadvantages:More ineffective management; inflexibility; social and political backlash 2)Polycentric attitude: The view that the managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business. a.Advantages: Extensie knowledge of foreign market and workplace; more support from host government; committed local managers with high morale b.Disadvantages: Duplication of work; reduced efficiency; difficult to maintain global objectives because of intense focus on local traditions. 3)Geocentric attitude: A world oriented view that focuses an using the best approaches and people from around the world. a.Advantages: Forces understanding of global issues; Balanced local and global objectives; best people and work approaches used regardless of origin b.Disadvantages: difficult to achieve; managers must have both local and global knowledge -Home country: the country in which the company’s headquarters are located. -Host country: the country in which the organization is doing business -Regional trading alliances 1)The European Union(EU):An union of 25 European nations created as a unified economic and trade entity. -euro: a single common european currency 2)North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA):an agreement among the Mexican, Canadian and U.S. governments in which barriers to trade have been eliminated.(Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela also eliminated tariff among them) 3)The U.S.-Central America Free Trade Agreement(CAFTA):with Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. 4)Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN):A trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian countries. 5)African Union(AU) 6)South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation(SAARC) -World Trade Organization(WTO):A global organization of 149 countries that deals with the ruls of trade among nations. -Evolved from General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT) -Multinational Corporation(MNC) is a broad term usually used to refer to any and all types of international companies that maintain operations in multiple countries. 1)Multi-domestic corporation is an MNC that decentralizes management and other decisions to the local country. ( This type of organization doesn’t attempt to replicate its domestics success by managing foreign operations from its home country. Instead, local employees typically are hired to manage the business and marketing strategies are tailored to that country’s unique characteristics.——POLY-CENTRIC ATTITUDE) 2)Global company: An international company that centralizes management and other decisions in the home country.(These companies treat the world market as an integrated whole and focus on the need for global efficiency.Although these companies may have considerable global holdings, management decisions with companywide implications are made from headquarter in the home country.——ETHNOCENTRIC ATTITUDE) 3)Transnational or borderless organization: An type of international company in which artificial geographical barriers are eliminated. 4)Born global (international new ventures or INVs): An international company that choose to go global from inception. -From minimal global investment to significant global investment 1)Global sourcing(global outsourcing): purchasing materials or labor from around the world wherever it is cheapest(The goal: take advantage of lower costs in order to be more competitive.) 2) The goal:steps toward being a full-blown international business and still usually involve minimall investment and minimal risk. a.Exporting: Making products domestically and selling them abroad. b.Importing: Acquiring products made abroad and selling them domestically c.Licensing:An organization gives another organization the right to make or sell its products using its technology or product specification. d.Franchising:An organization gives another organization the right to use its name and operating methods. 3) a.Strategic alliances:Partnerships between an organization and a foreign company parters in which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building production facilities.(A special type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose is called JOINT VENTURE) b.Foreign subsidiary:Directly investing in a foreign country by setting up a separate and independent production facility or office.(Multi-domestic for local control or global organization for centralized control) -Licensing and franchising are similar approach involving an organization’s giving another organization the right to use its brand name, technology, or product specification in return for a lump sum payment or a fee usually based on sales.The difference is that LICENSING is primarily used by manufacturing organization that make or sell another company’s products and FRANCHISING is primarily used by servie organizations that want to use another company’s name and operating methods. -Wikis:Serve software that allows users to freely create and edit Web-page content using any Web browser. -Blog:Web logs or online diaries. -Market economy:an economic system in which resources are primarily owned and controlled by the private sector. -Command economy:an economic system in which all economic decision are planned by a central government -What are the challenges of doing business globally? 1)Legal-political environment(laws and regulations, stability of government) 2)Economic environment(market/command economy, currency exchange rates, inflation rates, tax policies. 3)Culture environment (national culture characteristics) -National culture:The values and attitudes shared by individual from a specific country that shape their behavior and beliefs about what is important. -Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures: 1)Individualism versus collectivism 2)Power distance 3)Uncertainty avoidance 4)Achievement versus nurturing 5)Long-term and short-term orientation -Individualism is the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. -In an individualistic society, people are supposed to look after their own interests and those of their immediate family and do so because of the large amount of freedom that an individualistic society allows its citizens. -The opposite is collectivism. -Power distance is a measure of the extent to which a society accepts the fact that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. -A high power distance society accepts a wide differences in power in organizations. Employees show a great deal of respect for those in authority. Titles, rannk and status carry a lot of weight. -Uncertainty avoidance describes the degree to which people tolerate risk and prefer structured over unstructured situation. -People in low uncertainty avoidance societies are relatively comfortable with risks.They’re also relatively tolerant of behavior and opinions that differ from their own because they don’t feel threatened by them. -People in high uncertainty avoidance societies are nervous, highly stressful and aggressive. -Achievement is the degree to which values such as assertiveness, the acquisition of money and material goods, and competition prevail. -Nurturing is a national cultural attribute that emphasizes relationships and concern for others -Long-term and short term orientation attribute looks at a country’s orientation toward life and work. -People in cultures with lont-term orientation look to the future and value thrift and persistence.Leisure time is not so important and it is believed that the most important events in life will occur in the future. -The GLOBE(Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) Framework for Assessing Cultures 1)Assertiveness:The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough,confrontational, assertive and competitive versus modest and tender. 2)Future orientation:The extent to which a society encourages and rewards future0oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future and delaying gratification. 3)Gender differentiation:The extent to which a society maximizes gender role differences as measure by how much status and decision-making responsibilities women have. 4)Uncertainty avoidance. 5)Power distance 6)Individualism versus collectivism 7)In-group collectivism:The extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups. 8)Performance orientation. The degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence. 9)Humane orientation: The degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring and kind to others.(Nurturing dimension)

    2012-08-18 20:02:24 1人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 6 Decision Making-The Essence of the Manager's Job

    -Problem:A discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs. -Three characteristics of problems: 1)Being aware of them (by looking at actual conditions and at the conditions that are required or desired) 2)Being under pressure(deadlines, financial crises, competitor actions, customer complains, expectations from the boss, organizational policies or an upcoming performance evaluation) to act 3)Having the resources needed to take actions. -Decision:A choice from two or more alternatives -Decision-making process:A set of eight steps that include identifying a problems, selecting an alternative and evaluating the decision’s effectiveness Step 1:Identifying a problem Step 2:Identifying decision criteria(criteria that define what’s relevant in a decision) Step 3:Allocating weights to the criteria Step 4:Developing alternatives Step 5:Analyzing alternatives(evaluating alternatives against the criteria established) Step 6:Selecting an alternative Step 7:Implementing the alternative Step 8:Evaluating decision effectiveness -Rational decision making:Decision-making behavior where choices are consistent and value0maximizing within specified constraints -Assumptions of rationality: 1)The problem is clear and unambiguous 2)A single, well-defined goal is to be achieved. 3)All alternatives and consequences are known 4)Preferences are clear 5)Preferences are constant and stable 6)No time or cost constraints exist. 7)Final choice will maximize payoff. -Bounded rationality:Decision-making behavior that’s rational, but limited(bounded) by an individual’s ability to process information -Managers satisfice, rather than maximize.(Satisficing:accepting solutions that are “good enough.” -Escalation of commitment:An increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been wrong. -Intuitive decision making: Making decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgement. -Intuition 1)Experience-based decisions (past experience) 2)Affect-initiated decision(feelings or emotions) 3)Cognitive-based decision(skills,knowledge and training) 4)Subconscious mental processing(data from subconscious mind) 5)Values or ethics-based decision(ethics values or culture) -Types of problems and decisions 1)Structured problems:Straightforward, familiar and easily defined problem 2)Programmed decision:A repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach a.Procedure:A series of interrelated sequential steps that can be used to respond to a well-structured problem.The only real difficulty is in identifying the problem. d.Rule:An explicit statement that tells managers what they can or cannot do. c.Policy: A guideline for making decisions.A policy establishes general parameters for the decision maker rather than specifically stating what should or should not be done. 3)Unstructured problems:Problems that are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete 4)Non-programmed decisions:A unique decision that requires a custom-made solution -Decision-making conditions: 1)Certainty:A situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known. 2)Risk:a situation in which the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes. 3)Uncertainty:A situation in which a decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available. a.The optimistic manager will follow a maximax choice(maximizing the maximum possible payoff) b.The pessimist will follow a maximin choice(maximizing the minimum possible payoff) c.The manager who desires to minimize his maximum “regret” will opt for a minimax choice.(regret referring to the amount of money that could have been made had a different strategy been used. -Business performance management(BPM) software:IT software that provides key performance indicators to help managers monitor efficiency of projects and employees. -Decision-making dimensions: 1)ways of thinking: rational&logical versus creative & intuitive 2)tolerance for ambiguity -Decision-making styles: 1)Directive style: low tolerance for ambiguity & rational of thinking; fast decisions;focus on short run. Their efficiency and speed in making decisions often result in their making decisions with minimal information and assessing few alternatives. 2)Analysis style.greater tolerance for ambiguity & rational of thinking; more information and more alternatives.Careful decision makers with the ability to adapt or cope with unique situation. 3)Conception style.Very broad in their outlook and look at many alternatives; focus on long run and very good at finding creative solution to problems. 4)Behavioral style. They’re concerned about the achievements of those around them and are receptive to suggestions from others.They often use meetings to communicate, although they try to avoid conflict. Acceptance by others is important to them. -Heuristics: Rules of thumb that managers use to simplify decision making -Decision-making biases and errors 1)Overconfidence bias(think they know more than they do or hold unrealistically positive views of themselves and their performance 2)Immediate gratification bias(want immediate rewards and to avoid immediate costs) 3)Anchoring effect(fixate on initial information as a starting point and then, once set, fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information) 4)Selective perception bias(selectively organize and interpret events based on their biased perception) 5)confirmation bias(seek out information that reaffirms their past choice and discount information that contradicts past judgments.These people tend to accept at face value information that confirms their preconceived views and are critical and skeptical of information that challenges these views) 6)Framing bias(select and highlight certain aspects of a situation while excluding others.By drawing attentino to specific aspects of a situation and highlighting them ,while at the same time downplaying or omitting other aspects, they distort what they see and create incorrect reference points) 7)Availability bias(remember events that are the most recent and vvid in the memory.It distorts their ability to recall events in an objectie manner and results in distorted judgment and probability estimates.) 8)Representation bias(assess the likelihood of an event based on how closely it resembles other events or sets of events.Managers exhibiting this bias draw analogies and see identical situations where they don’t exist.) 9)Randomness bias(create meaning out of random events) 10)Sunk costs error(forget that current choices can’t correct the past.They incorrectly fixate on past expenditures of time, money or effort in assessing choices rather than on future consequence.s) 11)Self-serving bias(take credit for their success quickly and blame failure on outside factors) 12)Hindsight bias(falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted the outcome of an event once that outcome is actually known. -During the decision-making process, cultural differences can be seen: 1)Identifying problems:solving or accepting 2)Searching for information:gathering facts or intuitive 3)Developing alternatives:future-orientated or past-orientated 4)Making choices:individual or group decision making 5)Implementing alternatives:quick or slow; innovative or disruptive;managed from the top or involves participation from all levels within the organization -Decision making for today’s world 1)Understand cultural differences 2)Know when it’s time to call it quits 3)Do use an effective decision-making process -Characteristics of effective decision-making process 1)It focuses on what’ s important 3)It’s logical and consistent 3)It acknowledges both subjective and objective thinking and blends analytical with intuitive thinking 4)It requires only as much information and analysis as is necessary to resolve a particular dilemma 5)It encourages and guides the gathering of relevant information and informed opinion 6)It’s straightforward, reliable, easy to use and flexible -The best way for managers to respond to unpredictability and uncertainty is by building an organization that expertly spots the unexpected when it crops up and then quickly adapts to the changed environment.——HIGHLY RELIABLE ORGANIZATIONS(HROs) 1)They are not tricked by their success 2)Defer to the experts on the front line 3)Let unexpected circumstances provide the solution 4)embrace complexity 5)Anticipate, but also anticipate their limits

    2012-08-18 20:02:45 3人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 7 Foundation of Planning

    -Planning: Defining the organization’s goals establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing plans for organizational work activities. -It’s concerned wit both ends(What’s to be done) and means(How it’s to be done) -In informal planning, nothing is written down ,and there is little or no sharing of goals with others in the organization -In formal planning, specific goals covering a period of years are defined. these goals are written and shared with organization al members to reduce ambiguity and create a common understanding about what needs to be done.Also, specific action plans exist for achieving these goals, that is, managers define how the goals will be reached. -Reasons why managers need to plan 1)Planning provides direction to managers and non-managers alike. 2(Planning reduces uncertainty by forcing managers to look ahead, anticipate change, consider the impact of change and develop appropriate responses. 3)Planning minimizes waste and redundancy. 4)Planning establishes the goals or standards used in controlling. -Planning and performance 1)Generally speaking, formal planning is associated with positive financial results. 2)Doing a good job of planning and implementing those plans play a bigger part in high performance than does the extent and amount of planning done 3)Critical environmental forces such as governmental regulations and powerful labor unions often constrain managers’ options and reduce the impact of planning on an organization’s performance. 4)The planning/performance relationship seems to be influenced by the planning time frame.(at least 4 years before seeing any impact on performance) -Planning involves two important elements: 1)Goals /Objective:Desired outcomes for individual, groups or entire organization(foundation of planning) 2)Plans:Documents that outline how goals are going to be met a.Resource allocation b.Schedules c.Other necessary actions to accomplish the goals -Types of goals 1)Financial goals versus strategic goals 2)Real goals versus Stated goals a.Real goals: Goals that an organization actually pursues, as defined by the action of its member b.Stated goals:Official statements of what an organization says and what it wants its various stakeholders to believe, its goals are. -Framing: a way to use language to manage meaning. It’s a way for leaders to influence how events are seen and understood.It involves selecting and highlighting one or more aspects of a subject while excluding others. -The most popular ways to describe organizational plans are by 1)Breadth(Strategic versus operational) a.Strategic plans are plans that apply to the entire organization,establish the organization’s overall goals, and seek to position the organization in terms of its environment.(long term, directional and single use.) b.Operational plans are plans that specify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved.(short term, specific and standing.) 2)Time frame(short term [<=1 years] versus long term[>=3 years]) 3)Specificity(directional versus specific) a.Specific plans:plans that are clearly defined and that leave no room for interpretation b.Directional plans:Plans that are flexible and that set out general guideline 4)Frequency of use(single-use versus standing) a.Single-use plan:A one-time plan specifically designed to meet the needs of a unique situation b.Standing plans:ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly. -Traditional goal setting:An approach to setting goals in which goals are set at the top level of the organization and then broken into subgoals for each level of the organization -Problems: 1)Translating corporate goals in to departmental, team and ultimately individual objective is difficult and potentially expensive, particularly for large global corporations. 2)If top managers define the organization’s goals in broad terms, these ambiguous goals have to be made more specific as they flow down through the organization. Therefore, goals lose clarity and unity as they make their way down from the top of the organization to lower levels. -Management by objectives(MBO):A process of setting mutually agreed0upon goals and using those goals to evaluate employee performance. -Elements: 1)Goal specificity 2)Participative decision making 3)An explicit time period 4)Performance feedback -The appeal of MBO is that it focuses on employees working to accomplish goals they’ ve had a hand in determining. -Steps: 1)The organization’s overall objectives and strategies are formulated 2)Major objectives are allocated among divisional and departmental units 3)Unit managers collaboratively ste specific objectives for their units with their managers 4)Specific objective are collaboratively set with all department members 5)Action plans, defining how objectives are to be achieved, are specified and agreed upon by managers and employees 6)The action plans are implemented 7)Progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed, and feedback is provided. 8)Successful achievement of objectives is reinforced by performance-based rewards. -Problems: 1)MBO may not be as effective in times of dynamic environmental change. 2)An overemphasis by an employee on accomplishing his or her goals without regard to others in the work unit can be counterproductive. 3)If MBO is viewed simply as an annual exercise in filling out paperwork, employee won’t be motivated to accomplish goals -Means-ends chain:An integrated network of goals in which the accomplishment of goals at one levels serves as the means for achieving the goals, or ends, at the next level. -Characteristics of well-designed goals 1)Written in terms of outcomes rather than actions 2)Measurable and quantifiable 3)Clear as to a time frame 4)challenging yet attainable 5)Written down 6)Communicated to all necessary organizational members -The desired end result is the most important element of any goal and the goal should be written to reflect this. -Steps in goal setting 1)Review the organization’s mission 2)Evaluate available resource 3)Determine the goals individually or with input from others 4)Write down the goals and communicate them to all who need to know 5)Review results and whether goals are bing meet.(If goals aren’t being met, make changes to the goals, as needed) -Mission: the purpose of organization -Contingency factors in planning. 1)Level in the organization(lower-level operational/upper-level strategic planning) 2)Degree of environmental uncertainty(high—specific plan) 3)Length of future commitments(affect the future more, the longer) -Commitment concept:Plans should extend far enough to meet those commitment made today -Approach to planning 1)In the traditional approach, planning was done entirely by top-level managers who were often assisted by a formal planning department, a group of planning specialists whose sole responsibility was helping to write the various organizational plans. 2)Involving more organizational members.Plans are developed by organizational members at the various levels and in the various work units to meet their specific needs. -Criticisms of planning 1)Planning may create rigidity 2)Plans can’t be developed for a dynamic environment 3)Formal plans can’t replace intuition and creativity. 4)Planning focuses manager’s attention on today’s competition ,not on tomorrow’s survival 5)Formal planning reinforces success, which may lead to failure 6)Just planning isn’t enough -In an uncertain environment, managers want to develop plans that are specific, but flexible -Planning is an ongoing process.

    2012-08-18 20:03:08 1人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 8 Strategic Management

    -Strategic management: What managers do to develop the organization’s strategies. -Strategies:The decision and actions that determine the long-run performance of an organization. -Business model:A strategic design for how a company intends to profit from its strategies, processes and activities. 1)Whether customers will value what the company is providing 2)Whether the company can make any money doing that -Why is strategic management so important? 1)It can make a difference in how well an organization perform 2)Organizations of all types and sizes face continually changing situation. 3)Because of the nature of organizations: They’re composed of diverse divisions, departments, functions and work activities—that all need to be coordinated and focused on achieving and organization’s goals. 4)It’s involved in many of the decisions that managers make. -Strategic management process:a six-step process that encompasses strategic planning, implementation and evaluation. Step 1:Identifying the organization’s current mission, goals and strategies Step 2:Doing the external analysis:opportunities & threats a.Opportunities:Positive trends in external environmental factors b.Threats:Negative trends in external environmental factors Step 3:Doing the internal analysis:strengths & weaknesses a.Resources:An organization’s assets that are used to develop, manufacture, and deliver products or services to its customers b.Capabilities:An organization’s skills and abilities in doing the work activities needed in its business c.Core competencies:The organization’s major value-creating skills and capabilities that determine its competitive weapons. d.Strengths:Any activities the organization does well or any unique resources that it has e.Weaknesses:Activities the organization does not do well or resources it needs but does not possess. Step 4:Formulating strategies:corporate,business and functional Step 5:Implementing strategies Step 6:Evaluating results -The combined external and internal analyses are called SWOT analysis. -After completing the SWOT analysis, managers are ready to formulate appropriate strategies: 1)Exploit an organization’s strengths and external opportunities 2)Buffer or protect the organization from external threats 3)Correct critical weaknesses. -Doing a personal SWOT Analysis Step 1: Assessing personal strengths and weaknesses Step 2: Identifying career opportunities and threats Step 3:Outlining 5-year career goals Step 4: Outlining a 5-year career action plan -Mission:A statement of the purpose of an organization -Components of a mission statement: 1)Customers (targeted): Who are the firm’s customer? 2)Markets:Where does the firm compete geographically? 3)Concern for survival, growth, and profitability: Is the firm committed to growth and financial stability? 4)Philosophy:What are the firm’s basic beliefs, values and ethical priorities? 5)Concern for public image: How responsive is the firm to societal and environmental concern? 6)Products or services:What are the firm’s major products or services? 7)Technology:Is the firm technologically current? 8)Self-concept:What are the firm’s major competitive advantage and core competencies? 9)Concern for employees:Are employees a valuable asset of the firm? -Types of organizational strategies 1)Corporate Strategy: 2)Business Strategy 3)Functional Strategy -Corporate Strategy -An organizational strategy that determines what businesses a company is in, should be in, or wants to be in, and what it wants to do with those businesses. -It’s based on the mission and goals of the organization and the roles that each busineese unit of the organization will play. -Main types of corporate strategies: 1)Growth:When an organization wants to grow and does so by expanding the number of products offered or markets served, either through its current businesses or through new businesses.Ways for growth: a.Concentration:When an organization concentrates on its primary lind of businesses and grows by increasing the number of products offered or markets served in this primary businesses. b.Vertical integration -Backward:gain control of its inputs by becoming its own supplier -Forward:gain control of its outputs by becoming its own distributor c.Horizontal integration:combining with other organization in the same industry d.Diversification:Related versus Unrelated industries. 2)Stability:Characterized by an absence of significant change in what the organization is currently doing.——Maintaining——Allowing managers to analyze their strategic options. a. When the industry is in a period of rapid upheaval with external forces drastically changing and making the future uncertain. b. When the industry is facing slow- or no-growth opportunities. c. Managers of small businesses. They feel the business is successful enough 3)Renewal:address organizational weakness that are leading to performance declines when business aren’t meeting their goals or declining. a.Retrenchment strategy:short-run b.Turnaround strategy:A renewal strategy for situations in which the organization’s performance problems are more serious -When an organization’s corporate strategy involves a number of businesses,manager can manage this collection, or portfolio, of businesses using a corporate portfolio matrix——BCG MATRIX:a strategy tool that guides resource allocation decisions on the basis of market share and growth rate of SBUs. a.Cash cows(low growth, high market share):generate large amounts of cash but the prospects for future growth are limited b.Stars(high growth, high market share):in a fast-growing market and hold a dominant share of that market. The contribution to cash flow depends on the need for resources. c.Question marks(high growth, low market share):in an attractive industry but hold a small market share d.Dogs(low growth, low market share): do not produce or consume much cash.They hold no promise for improved performance. -Managers should “milk” cash cows for as much as they can, limit any new investment in them and use the large amounts of cash generated to invest in stars and question marks with strong potential to improve market share. -The stars will eventually develop into cash cows as the markets mature and sales growth slows. -Some of question marks will be sold off and others turned into stars. -The dogs should be sold off or liquidated as they have low market share in markets with low growth potential. -Business(or Competitive) Strategy -An organizational strategy focused on how the organization will complete in each of its businesses For a smal l organization in only on line of business or a large organization that has not diversified into different products or markets, the competitive strategy simply describes how the company will compete in its primary or main market. -For organizations in multiple businesses, each business will have its own competitive strategy that defines its competitive advantage, the products or services it will offer, the customers it wants to reach, and the like. -Strategic business units(SBUs) -The single businesses of an organization in several different businesses that are independent and formulate their own strategies. -Developing an effective business or competitive strategy requires an understanding of competitive advantage, a key concept in strategic management. -Competitive advantage is what sets an organization aart, that is, its distinctive edge. -That distinctive edge can come from the organization’s core competencies, or organizational resources. -It’s no enough for an organization simply to create a competitive advantage, it must be able to sustain it. -Managers assess an industry’s attractiveness using these five factors: 1)Threat of new entrants. 2)Threat of substitutes 3)Bargaining power of buyers 4)Bargaining power of suppliers 5)Current rivalry -Three generic competitive strategies managers can use. 1)Cost leadership:A business or competitive strategy in which the organization competes on the basis of having the lowest costs in its industry. 2)Differentiation:A business or competitive strategy in which a company offers unique products that are widely valued by customers. 3)Focus:A business or competitive strategy in which a company pursues a cost or differentiation advantage in a narrow industry segment -Stuck in the middle:a situation where an organization hasn’t been able to develop either a low cost or a differentiation competitive strategy -The Rule of Three:In many industries, three major players emerge to dominate the market. -These three companies are usually highly efficient——”full-line generalist” -Other firms in the industry that want to be successful——”the super niche players” ——specialize through either product or market segmentation. -Functional strategies: The strategies used by an organization’s various functional departments to support the business or competitive strategy -Strategic flexibility:The ability to recognize major external environmental changes, to quickly commit resources, and to recognize when a strategic decision was a mistake. -Six important responsibilities to be an effective strategic leader 1)Determine the organization’s purpose or vision 2)Exploit and maintain the core competencies 3)Develop the organization’s human capital 4)Create and sustain a strong organizational culture 5)Emphasizing ethical decisions and practices 6)Establish appropriately balanced controls -Creating strategic flexibility 1)Know what’s happening with strategies currently being used by monitoring and measuring results 2)Encourage employees to be open about disclosing and sharing negative information 3)Get new ideas and perspectives from outside the organizations 4)Have multiple alternatives when making strategic decisions 5)Learn from mistakes -New directions in organizational strategies 1)E-business strategies 2)Customer service strategies 3)Innovation strategies -E-business strategies: 1)Create knowledge bases that employees can tap into anytime, anywhere 2)Turn customers into collaborative partners who help design ,test and launch new products 3)Become virtually paperless in specific tasks such as purchasing and filling expense reports 4)Manage logistics in real time 5)Change the nature of numerous work tasks throughout the organization -A click-and-bricks e-business strategy:use both online (clicks) and traditional stand-alone locations(bricks) -Customer service strategies 1)Giving customers what they want 2)Communication -First mover: An organization that’s first to bring a product innovation to the market or to use a new process innovation -First-mover advantages 1)Reputation for being innovative and industry leader 2)Cost and learning benefits 3)Control over scarce resources and keeping competitor from having access to them 4)Opportunity to begin build customer relationships and customer loyalty -First-mover disadvantages 1)Uncertainty over exact direction technology and market will go 2)Risk of competitor imitating innovations 3)Financial and strategic risks 4)High development costs -Innovation strategies aren’t necessarily focused on just the radical breakthrough products. They can include the application of existing technology to new uses. -Innovation strategies decisions: 1)Innovation emphasis 2)Innovation timing -Managers must first decise where the emphasis of their innovation efforts will be. 1)Basic scientific research:It requires the heaviest resource commitment 2)Product development:Although this strategy also requires a significant resource investment, it’s not in the areas associated with scientific research. The organization takes existing technology and improve on it or applies it in new ways. 3)Process improvement:An organization looks for ways to improve and enhance its work process.——lower cost

    2012-08-22 01:19:56 1人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 9 Planning Tools and Techniques

    TECHNIQUES FOR ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENT -Environmental scanning:The screening of large amount of information to anticipate and interpret changes in the environment 1)Competitor intelligence:Environmental scanning activity by which organizations gather information about competitors. 2)Global scanning -Forecasting:prediction of outcomes -Forecasting techniques: 1)Quantitative forecasting:Forecasting that applies a set of mathematical rules to a series of past data to predict outcomes.——preferred when mangers have sufficient hard data that can be used. a.Time series analysis: Fits a trend line to a mathematical equation and projects into the future by means of this equation.(Eg:Sales prediction based on the past sales) b.Regression models:Predict one variable on the basis of known or assumed other variable.(Eg:price-sales prediction) c.Econometric models:Uses a set of regression equation to simulation segments of the economy(Eg:Influence on sales by tax-law) d.Economic indicator:Use one or more economic indicators to predict a future state of the economy(Eg:GNP to predict discretionary income) e.Substitution effect:Uses a mathematical formula to predict how, when and under what circumstances a new product or technology will replace an existing one. 2)Qualitative forecasting:Forecasting that uses the judgement and opinions of knowledgeable individuals to predict outcomes. a.Jury of opinion:Combines and averages the opinions of experts b.Sales force composition:Combines estimates from field sales personnel of customers’ expected purchases c.Customer evaluation:Combines estimates from established customers’ purchases -Forecasting effectiveness 1)It’s important to understand that forecasting techniques are most accurate when the environment is not rapidly changing. 2)Use simple forecasting methods. 3)Look at involving more people in the process 4)Compare every forecast with “no change”(An no0change forecast is accurate approximately half the time. 5)Use rolling forecast that look 12 to 18 months ahead instead of using a single, static forecast. 6)Don’t rely on a single forecasting method.Make forecasts with several models and average them, especially when making longer-range forecast. 7)Don’t assume that you can accurately identify turning points in a trend. 8)Remember that forecasting is a managerial skill and as such can be practiced and improved -Benchmarking -Benchmarking is the search for the best practices among competitors or non-competitors that lead to their superior performance -Managers can improve performance by analyzing and then copying the methods of the leaders in various fields. 1)Form a benchmarking planning team:Identify a.What is to be benchmarked? b.Comparative organizations c.Data collection methods. 2)Gather internal and external data 3)Analyze data to identify performance gaps 4)Prepare and implement action plan. -Resources:The assets of the organization including financial, physical, human and intangible. TECHNIQUES FOR ALLOCATING RESOURCES -Budgeting -Budget:A numerical plan for allocating resources to specific activities -Managers typically prepare budgets for revenues, expenses and large capital expenditures such as equipment. -Types of budgets: 1)Variable budget versus Fixed budget a.Variable budget:take into account the costs that vary with volume b.Fixed budget:Assume fixed levels of sales or production 2)Classification a.Cash budget:Forecasts cash on hand and how much will be needed b.Revenue budget:Projects future sales c.Expense budget:List primary activities and allocates dollar amount yo each d.Profit budget:Combines revenue and expense budgets of various units to determine each unit’s profit contribution -Suggestions for improving budgeting 1)Collaborate and communicate 2)Be flexible 3)Goals should drive budgets—budgets should not determine goals 4)Coordinate budgeting throughout the organization 5)Use budgeting/planning software when appropriate 6)Remember that budgets are tools 7)Remember that profits result from smart management, not because you budgeted for them -Scheduling:Detailing what activities have to be done, the order in which they are to beo completed, who is to do each, and when they are to be completed -Gantt Charts:A scheduling chart developed by Henry Gantt that shows actual and planned output over a period of time.(It’s a bar graph with time on the horizontal axis and the activities to be scheduled on the vertical axis.) -Load Chart:A modified Gantt chart that schedules capacity by entire departments or specific resources(Instead of listing activities on the vertical axis, load charts list either entire department or specific resource.) -Gantt and load charts are useful as long as the activities being schedule are few in number and independent of each other. -PERT network:A flowchart diagram showing the sequence of activities needed to complete a project and that time or cost associated with each 1)Events:End points that represent the completion of major activities in a PERT work 2)Activities:The time or resources needed to progress from one event to another in a PERT network 3)Slack time:The amount of time an individual activity can be delayed without delaying the whole project 4)Critical path:The longest sequence of activities in a PERT network -Any delay in completing events on critical path would delay completion of the entire projects. (Activities on the critical path have zero slack time) -Steps in developing a PERT Network 1)Identify every significant activity that must be achieved for a project to be completed. The accomplishment of each activity results in a set of events or outcomes. 2)Determine the order in which these events must be completed. 3)Diagram the flow of activities from start to finish, identifying each activity and its relationship to all other activities.Use circles to indicate events and arrows to represent activities. This results in a flowchart diagram called a PERT Network 4)Compute a time estimate for completing each activity. This is done with a weighted average that uses an optimistic time estimate(to) of how long the activity would take under idea condition, a most likely estimate (tm) of the time the activity normally should take ,and a pessimistic estimate(tp) that represent the time that an activity should take under the worst possible condition.The expected time(te)=(to+4tm+ tp)/6 5)Using the network diagram that contrains time estimates for each activity, determine a schedule for the start and finish dates of each activity and for the entire project. Any delays that occur along the critical path require the most attention because they can delay the whole project. -Break-even Analysis:A technique for identifying the point at which total revenue is just sufficient to cover total costs. -Break-even point(BE), the unit price of the product being sold(P), the variable cost per unit(VC), and total fixed cost(TFC):BE=TFC/(P-VC) 1)Total revenue will equal total cost when we sell enough units at a price that covers all variable unit costs 2)The difference between price and variable costs, when multiplied by the number of units, equals the fixed costs. -BE analysis help to set the sales goal -Linear Programing(线性回归): A mathematical technique that solves resource allocation problems. -Problems that can be solved: 1)Selecting transportation routes that minimize shipping cost. 2)Allocating a limited advertising budget among various product brands 3)Making the optimal assignment of people among projects 4)Determining how much of each product to make with a limited number of resources -Steps: 1)Establish some facts about the business. 2)Ensure the feasibility region 3)Find the allocation that maximize the profit. CONTEMPORARY PLANNING TECHNIQUES -Project:A one-time-only set of activities that has a definite beginning and ending point in time -Project management:The task of getting a project’s activities done on time, within budget, and according to specifications -Project planning process: 1)Define objectives:What is expected? 2)Identify activities and resources 3)Establish sequences 4)Estimate time for activities 5)Estimate time for activities 6)Determine project completion date 7)Compare with objectives 8)Determine additional resource requirements -Scenario:A consistent view of what the future is likely to be -Scenario planning(contingency planning):Developing plans based on various possible future scenarios -If this is what happens, then these are the actions we need to take -Preparing for unexpected events: 1)Identify potential unexpected events 2)Determine if any of these events would have early indicators 3)Set up an information-gathering system to identify early indicators 4)Have appropriate responses(plans) in place if these unexpected events occur.

    2012-08-22 01:20:19 1人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 10 Organizational Structure and Design

    -Organizing: Arrangement and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goal -Purpose of organizing: 1)Divides work to be done into specific jobs and department 2)Assigns tasks and responsibilities associated with individual jobs 3)Coordinates diverse organizational task 4)Clusters jobs into units 5)Establishes relationships among individuals, groups, and department 6)Establishes formal lines of authority 7)Allocates and deploys organizational resources -Organizational structure:The formal arrangement of job within an organization -Organizational design:Developing or changing an organization’s structure -Six key elements: 1)Work specialization:Dividing work activities into separate job tasks.The essence of work specialization is that an entire work activity is not done by one individual, but instead is broken down into tasks with each task completed by a different person.(It also cause human diseconomies by Boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increased absenteeism and higher turn-over. 2)Departmentalization:The basis by which jobs are grouped together. a.Functional departmentalization groups jobs by functions performed. b.Product departmentalization groups jobs by product line c.Geographical departmentalization groups jobs on the basis of geographical region d.Process departmentalization groups jobs on the basis of product or customer flow e.Customer departmentalization groups jobs on the basis of specific and unique customers who have common needs.(more popular today with cross-functional teams:Work teams composed of individuals from various functional specialties) 3)Chain of command: The line of authority extending from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels, which clarifies who reports to whom. -Authority refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it. -Responsibility:The obligation to perform any assigned duties -Unity of command:The management principle that each person should report to only one manager. 4)Span of control -Span of control:The number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively manage. 5)Centralization and Decentralization a.Centralization:The degree to which decision making is concentrated at upper levels of the organization -Environment is stable -Lower-level mangers are not as capable or experienced at making decisions as upper-level managers -Lower-level manager do not want to have a say in decision -Decisions are relatively minor -Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company failure -Company is large -Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers retaining say over what happens b.Decentralization:The degree to which lower-level employees provide input or actually make decisions -Environment is complex, uncertain -Lower-level managers are capable and experienced at making decisions -Lower-level managers want to a voice in decisions -Decisions are significant -Corporation culture is open to allowing managers to have a say in what happens -Company is geographically dispersed -Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers having involvement and flexibility to make decisions c.Employee empowerment: Giving employees more authority(power) to make decisions 6)Formalization:How standardized an organization’s jobs are and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN DECISIONS -Mechanistic organizations:An organizations design that’s rigid and tightly controlled 1)High specialization 2)Rigid departmentalization 3)Clear chain of command 4)Narrow spans of control 5)Centralization 6)High formalization -Mechanistic organizational structures tend to be efficiency machines and rely heavily on rules, regulation, standardized tasks and similar control -This organizational design tries to minimize the impact of differing personalities, judgments and ambiguity because these human traits are seen as inefficient and inconsistent. -Organic organization:An organizational design that’s highly adaptive and flexible 1)Cross-functional teams 2)Cross-hierarchical teams 3)Free flow of information 4)Wide spans of control 5)Decentralization 6)Low formalization -Organic organizations may have specialized jobs, but those job are not standardized. -Employees are highly trained and empowered to handle diverse job activities and problems and these organizations frequently use employee teams. -Organic organization structure are more and more popular in today’s world -What that appropriate structure is depends on four contingency variables: 1)The organization’s strategy 2)Size:Large organizations tend to have more specialization, departmentalization, centralization and rules and regulations. 3)Technology 4)Degree of environmental uncertainty:The greater the uncertainty, the more an organization needs the flexibility offered by an organic design. -Changes in corporate strategy lead to changes in an organization’s structure -Most current strategy frameworks tent to focus on three dimensions: 1)Innovation, which reflect the organization’s pursuit of meaningful and unique innovations——Flexibility and free-flowing information of the organic structure 2)Cost minimization, which reflects an organization’s pursuit of tightly controlled cost——efficiency, stability and tight control of the mechanistic structure 3)Imitation, which reflects an organization’s seeking to minimize risk and maximize profit opportunities by copying the market leader.——Both, the mechanistic structure to maintain tight controls and low costs or the orgnic structure to mimic the industry’s innovative directions -Three categories based on the size of their production run, represent three distinct technologies 1)Unit production: the production of items in units or small batches(low vertical differentiation, low horizontal differentiation, low formalization)——ORGANIC 2)Mass production:large-batch manufacturing(Moderate vertical differentiation, high horizontal differentiation, high formalization)——MECHANISTIC 3)Process production:The production of items in continuous processes(High vertical differentiation, low horizontal differentiation, low formalization)——ORGANIC COMMON ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNS -Traditional organizational designs 1)Simple structure: An organizational design with low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralized authority an little formalization a.Strengths:Fast, flexible, inexpensive to maintain, clear accountability b.Weaknesses:Not appropriate as organization grows; reliance on one person is risky 2)Function structure:An organizational design that groups similar or related occupational specialities together a.Strengths:Cost-saving advantages from specialization(economies of scale, minimal duplication or people and equipment) and employees are grouped with others who have similar tasks. b.Weaknesses:Pursuit of functional goals can cause managers to lose sight of what’s best for overall organization’ functional specialists become insulated and have little understanding of what other units are doing. 3)Divisional structure:An organizational structure made up of separate, semi-autonomous units or divisions a.Strengths:Focuses on results—division managers are responsible for what happens to their products and services b.Weaknesses:Duplication of activities and resources increase cost and reduce efficiency -Contemporary organizational designs 1)Team structure:An organizational structure in which the entire organization is made up of work groups or teams. a.Strengths:Employees are more involved and empowered./Reduced barriers among functional areas. b.Weaknesses:No clear chain of command./Pressure on teams to perform 2)Matrix-project structure:An organizational structure that assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects.As one project is completed, employees move on to the next project a.Strengths:Fluid and flexible design that can respond to environmental changes./Faster decision making. b.Weaknesses:Complexity of assigning people to projects./Task and personality conflicts c.One unique aspect of this design is that it creates a dual chain of command, which violates the classical organization principle of unity of command.Employees in a matrix organization have two managers:their functional area manager and their project manager, who share authority. -The project manages have authority over the functional members, who are part of their project team in areas related to the project’s goals. -Decisions such as promotions, salary recommendations, and annual reviews typically remain the functional manager’s responsibility. d.To work effectively, project and functional managers have to communicate regularly, coordinate work demands on employees and resolve conflicts together. 3)Advanced matrix-project structure—Project Structure:An organizational structure in which employees continuously work on projects a.People are continuously work on projects. b.A project structure has no formal departments that employees return to at the completion of a project. c.There is no departmentalization or rigid organizational hierarchy to slow down decision making or taking actions. 3)Boundary-less organization:An organizations whose design is not defined by, or limited to, the horizontal, vertical and horizontal boundaries imposed by a predefined structure. a.Strengths:Highly flexible and responsive./Draws on talent wherever it’s found b.Weaknesses:Lack of control./Communication difficulties. -Boundary 1)Internal boundaries:The horizontal boundaries imposed by work specialization and departmentalization and the vertical boundaries that separate employees into organizational levels and hierarchies 2)External boundaries:The boundaries that separate the organization from its customers, suppliers and other stake holders. -A virtual organization is an organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and that hires outside specialists temporarily as needed to work on projects. -A network organization is an organization that uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside supplier to provide other needed product components or work processes.(modular organization, especially in manufacturing organizations) 1)This structural approach allows organizations to concentrate on what they do best by contracting out other activities to companies that can do those activities best. -Solution for today’s organizational design challenges 1)Keeping employees connected 2)Building a learning organization a.Learning organization:An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn ,adapt and change b.In a learning organization, employees continually acquire and share new knowledge and are willing to apply that knowledge in making decisions or performing their work. -It’s critical for members in learning organization to share information and collaborate on work activities throughout the entire organization——across different functional specialities and even at different organizational levels. -It requires minimal structural and physical barriers -Teams also tend to be an important feature of a learning organization’s structural design. 3)Managing global structural issues:The structures and strategies of organizations worldwide are similar, while the behavior within team is maintaining its cultural uniqueness 4)A final thought:The purpose is to help employees do their work in the best -Organizational chart:A visual drawing of an organization’s structure

    2012-08-22 01:20:42 2人喜欢 回应
  • Chapter 11 Communication and Information Technology

    -Communication: The transfer and understanding of meaning. -Transfer:If no information or ideals have been conveyed, communication han’t taken place. -Perfect communication would be when transmitted thought or idea was received and understood by the receiver exactly as it was envisioned by the sender. 1)Interpersonal communication:communication between two or more people 2)Organizational communication:All the patterns, networks and systems of communication within an organization. -Good communication is characterized by an understanding of the sender’s meaning ,not necessarily by agreement between the parties. -Functions of communication: 1)Control 2)Motivation:by clarifying to employees what is to be done, how well they’re doing and what can be done to improve performance if it’s not up to par. 3)Emotional expression 4)Information -Communication process:The seven elements involved in transferring meaning from one person to another 1)The communication source 2)The message:a purpose to be conveyed 3)Encoding:Connecting a message into symbols. 4)The channel:The medium a message travels along 5)Decoding: Retranslating a sender’s message 6)The receivers 7)Feedback:Return to the message to the sender and provides a check on whether the receiver understood the message.(Feedback can be transmitted along the same types of channels as the original message.) -A sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. -4 conditions influence the effectiveness of that encoded messages as well as receivers: 1)Skills 2)Attitudes 3)Knowledge of the sender 4)Social-culture system. -The message itself can distort the communication process, regardless of the kinds of supporting too.s or technologies used to convey it. -A message is the actual physical product encoded by the source 1)Written document 2)Oral speech 3)Gestures 4)Facial expressions -Noise:any disturbances that interfere with the transmission, receipt or feedback of a message. -Example:illegible print, phone static, inattention by the receiver, background sounds of machinery or co-workers. -Methods of communicating interpersonally 1)Face-to-face 2)Telephone 3)Group meetings 4)Formal presentation 5)Memos 6)Traditional mail 7)Fax machine 8)Employee publication 9)Bulletin borads 10)Other company publication 11)Audio- and videotapes 12)Hotlines 13)Email 14)Computer conferencing 15)Voice mail 16)Teleconferences 17)Videoconferences -Evaluation the various communication methods 1)Feedback:How quickly can the receiver respond to the messages? 2)Complexity capacity:Can the method effectively process complex message? 3)Breadth potential:How many different messages can be transmitted using this method? 4)Confidentiality:Can communicators be reasonably sure their messages are received only by those intended? 5)Encoding ease.Can the sender easily and quickly use this channel? 6)Decoding ease: Can the sender easily and quickly decode messages? 7)Time-space contraint:Do senders and receivers need to communicate at the same time and in the same space? 8)Cost:How much does it cost to use this method? 9)Interpersonal warmt:How well does this method convey interpersonal warmth? 10)Formality:Does this method have the needed amount of formality? 11)Scanability:Does this method allow the message to be easily browed or scanned for relevant information? 12)Time of consumption:Does the sender or receiver exercise the most control over when the message is dealt with? -Nonverbal communication:Communication transmitted without words -Body language refers to gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning. -Verbal communication refers to the emphasis someone gives to words or phrases that conveys meaning. -Barriers to effective interpersonal communication 1)Filtering:The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver(The more vertical levels there are in an organization, the more opportunities there are for filtering./The increasing use of email to communicate in organizations reduces filtering because communicating is more direct.The organizational culture encourages of discourages filtering by the type of behavior it rewards) 2)Emotions 3)Information overload:The information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity 4)Defensiveness 5)Language: a.Factors that influence the language:Age,education and cultural background. b.Jargon:Specialized terminology or technical language that members of a group use to communicate among themselves 6)National culture -Overcoming the barriers: 1)Use feedback 2)Simplify the language 3)Listen actively:Listening for full meaning without making premature judgement or interpretation a.Don’t overtalk b.Be empathetic c.Make eye contact d.Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions e.Ask questions f.Avoid distracting actions or gestures g.Paraphrase h.avoid interrupting speaker 4)Constrain emotions 5)Watch nonverbal cues -The communication styles of men and women 1)The men use talk to emphasize status, while women use it to create connection. 2)Men frequently assets his desire for independence and control by offering solution. many women, in contrast, view conversing about a problem as a way to promote closeness. 3)Men often criticize women for seeming to apologize all the time.Men tend to see “I’m sorry” as a sign of weakness while women regard it as an expression of regret. -Formal communication:Communication that follows the official chain of command or is required to do one’s job -Informal communication:Communication that is not defined by the organization’s structural hierarchy -The informal communication system fulfills two purposes in organizations: 1)It permit employees to satisfy their need for social interaction 2)It can improve an organization’s performance by creating alternative and frequently faster and more efficient, channel of communication -Direction of communication flow 1)Downward communication flows from a managers to employees(Usages: inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees) 2)Upward communication flows upward from employees to managers(It keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, their co-workers and the organization in general.Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how things can be improved) 3)Lateral communication takes place among any employees on the same organizational level 4)Diagonal communication cuts across work areas and organizational levels -Communication networks: They variety of pattern of vertical and horizontal flows of organizational communication 1)The wheel network represents communication flowing between a clearly identifiable and strong leader and others in a work group or team.The leader serves as the hub through whom all communication passes a.Speed:Fast b.Accuracy:High c:Emergence of leader:High d.Member satisfaction:Low 2)In the all-channel network, communication flows freely among all members of a work team a.Speed:Fast b.Accuracy:Moderate c:Emergence of leader:None d.Member satisfaction:High 3)In the chain network, communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward. a.Speed:moderate b.Accuracy:high c:Emergence of leader:moderate d.Member satisfaction:moderate -If you’re concerned with high member satisfaction ,the all-channel network is best; -If having a strong and identifiable leader is important, the wheel facilitates this -If accuracy is most important ,the chain and wheel networks work best. -The grapevine(小道情报网):the informal organizational communication network. -It contains rumors and gossip -It’s an important part of any group or organization communication network and well worth understanding.It identifies for managers those bewildering issues that employees consider important and anxiety producing -Information technology 1)Networked computer systems:Interactive real-time communication that takes place among computer uses logged on the computer network at the same time.(In a networked computer system, an organization links its computers creating an organizational network .Organizational members can then communicate with each other and tap in to information whether they’re down the hall, across town or halfway across the world.) a.Email:The instantaneous transmission of written massages on computers that are linked together b.Instant messaging(IM): Interactive real-time communication that takes place among computers users logged on the computer network at the same time. c.Blogs:An online journal that usually focuses on a particular subject d.Wikis:A type of websites that allows anyone visiting it to add, remove and otherwide edit the content e.Voice mail:A communication system that digitizes a spoken message, transmits it over a network, and stores the message on disk for the receiver to retrieve later f.fax:Communication through machines that allow the trasmission of documents containing both text and graphic over ordinary telephone lines g.electronic data interchange(EDI):A way for organizations to exchange standard business transaction documents using direct compter-to-computer networks h.Tele-conferencing: Communication system that allows a group of people to confer simultaneously using telephone or e-mail group communications software i.Videoconferencing:A simultaneous communication conference where participants can see each other. j.Web conferencing:Holding group meetings or live presentations over the Internet k.Intranets:An organizational communication network that uses Internet technology and is accessible only by organizational employees. l.Extranets:An organizational communication network that uses internet technology and allows authorized users inside the organization to communicate with certain outsiders. 2)Wireless capacities -Two communication challenge in today’s world 1)Legal and security issues 2)Lack of personal interaction -Hackers:People who try to gain unauthorized access to computer systems -Spam:Electronic junk mail -Communities of practice: Groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in that area by interacting on an ongoing basis.

    2012-08-22 01:21:04 1人喜欢 回应
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