Adieudusk对《Illuminations》的笔记(3)

Adieudusk
Adieudusk (雲銜天笑明,雨帶星精落。)

在读 Illuminations

Illuminations
  • 书名: Illuminations
  • 作者: Walter Benjamin
  • 副标题: Essays and Reflections
  • 页数: 278
  • 出版社: Schocken Books
  • 出版年: 1969-1-13
  • 第51页

    Urphanomene and Gesalt Gestalt Gestalt is a common German word meaning ‘form’ or ‘figure’ as in ‘what a fine figure of a man’, but has special connotations which Goethe explained in this way: “The Germans have a word for the complex of existence presented by a physical organism: Gestalt. With this expression they exclude what is changeable and assume that an interrelated whole is identified, defined, and fixed in character. “But if we look at all these Gestalten, especially the organic ones, we will discover that nothing in them is permanent, nothing is at rest or defined – everything is in a flux of continual motion. This is why German frequently and fittingly makes use of the word Bildung to describe the end product and what is in process of production as well. “Thus in setting forth a morphology we should not speak of Gestalt, or if we use the term we should at least do so only in reference to the idea, the concept, or to an empirical element held fast for a mere moment of time.” Goethe was interested in the perception of Gestalten, and not only as an artist and critic, but as a natural scientist. Goethe saw Nature as a Gestalt (including its human observers) and particular complex phenomena, such as plant life, he also saw as Gestalten, every individual of which was an instance of the whole. The unique and original approach he devised for the conception of a Gestalt, he called the Urphänomen, or archetypal phenomenon. By Urphänomen, Goethe understood the simplest possible unit of the complex whole, which exhibited all the essential properties of the Gestalt, but lacked any contingent attributes. In this way he could grasp the Gestalt both as a concept and as an appearance, so that the process could be understood viscerally and immediately, rather than by means of some force or principle which lies beyond perception. Hegel appropriated Goethe’s conception of Gestalten des Bewußtsein, or ‘formation of consciousness’ (social formation for Marx), and transformed it into the Concept (Begriff), the key concept of his philosophy, each circle of the Encyclopaedia beginning from a Concept of its subject matter. Marx also appropriated Goethe’s idea of Urphänomen and Gestalt in his use of the commodity relation as the cell of bourgeois society, and the starting point for his analysis of Capital. http://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/g/e.htm

    2013-10-03 12:05:05 回应
  • 第70页 The Task of the Translator

    god's remembrance

    2013-10-04 09:57:36 回应
  • 第71页
    ...the range of life must be determined by history rather than by nature, least of all by such tenuous factors as sensation and soul.
    引自第71页

    for some people, maybe... but what is history first?

    2013-10-04 10:28:47 回应

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