蒂。对《语言引论》的笔记(15)

语言引论
  • 书名: 语言引论
  • 作者: Victoria Fromkin/Robert Rodman/Nina Hyams
  • 副标题: An Introduction to Language (Eighth Edition)
  • 页数: 586
  • 出版社: 北京大学出版社
  • 出版年: 2007
  • 第27页
    In a parallel fashion, a child can walk without understanding or being able to explain the principles of balance and support, or the neurophysiological control mechanism that permit one to do so. The fact that we may know sth unconsciously is not unique to language.
    The sign languages are essentially the same as spoken language, except that they use gestures instead of sound.
    The possession of language distinguishes humans from other animals. The nervous systems of all animals have a number of basic functions in common, most notably the control of movement and the analysis of sensation. What distinguishes the human brain is the variety of more specialized activities it is capable of learning. The preeminent example is language.
    Linguistics shares with other sciences a concern to be objective, systematic, consistent, and explicit in its account of language. Like other sciences, it aims to collect data, test hypothesis, devise models, and construct theories. Its subject matter, however, is unique: at one extreme it overlaps with such hard sciences as physics and anatomy; at the other, it involves such traditional arts subjects such as philosophy and literary criticism. The field of linguistics includes both science and the humanities, and offers a breadth of coverage that, for many aspiring students of the subject like me, is the primary source of its appeal.
    2014-01-25 12:01:06 回应
  • the creativity of linguistic knowledge
    先记几种水乳霜按功效的叫法 cell renewal,hydration restoration,pore minimization,cleans,tones,nourishes,firms,protects,smooths,rejuvenates,代购的兽可以不用说啥玩儿都water了..囧
    Knowing the sound system of a language includes more than knowing the inventory of sounds. It includes knowing which sounds may start a word, end a word, and follow each other. Knowing a language is also to know that certain sound sequences signify certain concepts or meanings.
    Knowledge of a language enables you to combine words to form phrases, and phrases to form sentences. You cannot buy a dictionary of any language with all its sentences, because no dictionary can list all the possible sentences. Knowing a language means being able to produce new sentences never spoken before and to understand sentences never heard before.
    In addition to knowing the words of the language, linguistic knowledge includes rules for forming sentences. These rules must be finite in length and finite in number so that they can be stored in our finite brains. Yet, they must permit us to form and understand an infinite set of new sentences.
    When you know a language, you know the sounds, the words, and the rules for their combination.
    2014-01-25 20:07:48 回应
  • 第37页
    一字一字看 再一字一字敲 tired but happy
    There is a difference between having the knowledge necessary to produce sentences of a language, and applying this knowledge. For example, very long sentences are theoretically possible, but they are highly improbable. It is a difference between what you know, which is your Linguistic Competence, and how you use this knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension, which is your Linguistic Performance.
    For the most part, linguistic knowledge is not conscious knowledge. The linguistic system — the sounds, structures, meanings, words, and rules for putting them all together — is learned subconsciously with no awareness that rules are being learned. Just as we may not be conscious of the principles that allow us to stand or walk, we are unaware of the rules of language. Our ability to speak and understand, and to make judgments about the grammaticality of sentences, reveals our knowledge of the rules of our language. This knowledge represents a complex cognitive system. The nature of this system is what this book is all about.
    To the extent that the linguist's description is a true model of the speakers' linguistic capacity, it is a successful description of the grammar and of the language itself. Such a model is called descriptive grammar. It does not tell you how you should speak; it describes your basic linguistic knowledge. It explains how it is possible for you to speak and understand and it tells what you know about the sounds, words, phrases, and sentences of your language. We have used the word grammar in two ways: the first in reference to the mental grammar speakers have in their brains: the second as the model or description of this internalized grammar. When we say that a sentence is grammatical, we mean that it conforms to the rules of both grammars; conversely, an ungrammatical sentence deviates in some way from these rules.
    From ancient times until the present, purists have believed that language change is corruption, and that there are certain correct forms that all educated people should use in speaking and writing. They wished to prescribe rather than describe the rules of grammar, which gave rise to the writing of prescriptive grammars. Prescriptivists are bound to fail. Language is vigorous, dynamic, and constantly changing. All languages and dialects are expressive, complete, and logical. If sentences are muddled, it is not because of the language but because of the speakers. Prescriptivists should be more concerned about the thinking of the speakers than about the language they use. Hopefully, this book convinced me of this.
    2014-01-26 09:44:32 回应
  • language universals
    The grammar includes everything speakers know about their language — the sound system, called phonology; the system of meaning, called semantics; the rules of word formation, called morphology; and the rules of sentence formation, called syntax. It also, of course, includes the vocabulary of words — the dictionary or lexicon. Many people think of the grammar of a language as referring largely to morphological rules like “add –s to third-person singular verbs”, or syntactic rules such as “a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate.” This is often what students mean when they talk about their class in English grammar. 
    It is certainly the business of a grammarian to find out, and not to make, the laws of a language.
    There is a universal grammar that is part of the human biologically endowed language faculty. ——Chomsky
    To discover the nature of this universal grammar whose principles characterize all human languages is a major aim of linguistic theory. The linguist's goal is to discover the law of human language. The complexity of language, a product of the human brain, undoubtedly means this goal will never be fully achieved. All scientific theories are incomplete, and new hypotheses must be proposed to account for new data. Theories are continually changing as new theories are made. Chomsky proposed that human beings are born with an innate blueprint for language, what we referred to earlier as Universal Grammar. Children are able to acquire language as quickly and effortlessly as they do because they do not have to figure out all the rules of their language, only those that are specific to their particular language. The universal properties — the laws of language — are part of their biological endowment. Linguistic theory aims to uncover those principles that characterize all human languages and to reveal the innate component of language that makes language acquisition possible.
    2014-01-26 11:13:02 回应
  • 第54页
    1.	Wherever humans exist, language exists.
    2. There are no primitive languages — all languages are equally complex and equally capable of expressing an idea in the universe. The vocabulary of any language can be expanded to include new words for new concepts.
    3. All languages change through time.
    4. The relationships between the sounds and the meanings of spoken languages between the gestures and meanings of sign languages are for the most part arbitrary.
    5. All human languages use a finite set of discrete sounds or gestures that are combined to form meaningful elements or words, which themselves may be combined to form an infinite set of possible sentences.
    6. All grammars contain rules of a similar kind for the formation of words and sentences.
    7. Every spoken language includes discrete sound segments, like p, n, or a, that can all be defined by a finite set of sound properties or features. Every spoken language has a class of vowels and a class of consonants.
    8. Similar grammatical categories (for example, noun, verb) are found in all languages.
    9. There are universal semantic properties like “male” or “female”, found in every language in the world.
    10. Every language has a way of negating, forming questions, issuing commands, referring to past or future time, and so on.
    11. Speakers of all languages are capable of producing and comprehending an infinite set of sentences. Syntactic universals reveal that every language has a way of forming sentences.
    12. Any normal child, born anywhere in the world, of any racial, geographical, social, or economical heritage, is capable of learning any language to which he or she is exposed. The differences we find among languages cannot be due to biological reasons.
    We are all intimately familiar with at least one language, our own. Yet few of us ever stop to consider what we know when we know a language. The words of a language can be listed in a dictionary, but not all the sentences can be; and a language consists of these sentences as well as words. Speakers use a finite set of rules to produce and understand an infinite set of possible sentences.
    These rules are part of the grammar of a language, which develops when you acquire the language and includes the sound system (the phonology), the structure of words (the morphology), how words may be combined into phrases and sentences (the syntax), the ways in which sounds and meanings are related (semantics), and the words or lexicon. The sounds and meanings of these words are related in an arbitrary fashion. The knowledge (linguistic competence) is different from behavior (linguistic performance). If you woke up one morning and decided to stop talking, you would still have knowledge of your language. Grammars are of different kinds. The descriptive grammar of a language represents the unconscious linguistic knowledge or capacity of its speakers. Such a grammar is a model of the mental grammar every speaker of the language knows. It does not teach the rules of the language; it describes the rules that are already known. A grammar that attempts to legislate what your grammar should be is called a prescriptive grammar. It prescribes. Teaching grammars are written to help people learn a foreign language or a dialect of their own language.
    2014-01-26 20:51:40 1回应
  • 第58页
    敲字的时候正好听的是EM的Brain Damage~~~ hahahah
    Attempts to understand the complexities of human cognitive abilities and especially the acquisition and use of language are as old and as continuous as history. Three long-standing problems of science include the nature of the brain, the nature of human language, and the relationship between the two. The study of the biological and neural foundations of language is called neurolinguistics.
    The brain is the most complex organ of the body. It lies under the skull and consists of approximately 10 billion nerve cells (neuron) and billions of fibers that interconnect them. The surface of the brain is the cortex, often called gray matter, consisting of billions of neurons. Beneath the cortex is the white matter , which consists primarily of connecting fibers. The cortex is the decision-making organ of the body. It receives messages from all the sensory organs, and it initiates all voluntary actions. Somewhere in this gray matter resides the grammar that represents our knowledge of language. The brain is composed of cerebral hemispheres, one on the right, and one on the left, joined by the CORPUS CALLOSUM.胼胝体,胼肢体,脑胼胝体 In general, the left hemisphere supervises the right side of the body, and the right hemisphere supervises the left side. This is referred to as contralateral brain function.

    Aphasia is the neurological term for any language disorder that results from brain damage caused by disease or trauma.
    Broca's area:the front part of the left hemisphere
    People with Broca's aphasia may have labored speech, word-finding pauses, disturbed word orders, and difficulties with function words such as to and if. Language understanding may not appear abnormal, but controlled tests reveal a loss of comprehension of complex and ambiguous sentences.
    Wernicke's area:the back portion of the left hemisphere
    People with Wernicke's aphasia spoke fluent with good intonation and pronunciation, but with numerous instances of lexical errors (word substitutions), often producing nonsense words. They also had difficulty in comprehending speech.
    2014-01-28 13:28:53 1回应
  • 第75页
    Words in the lexicon are linked to each other through both sound and meaning. Words are not simply represented in a list, but rather in a network of connections. 
    Studies of genetic disorders reveal that one cognitive domain can develop normally along with abnormal development in other domains. Language is separate from other cognitive systems and autonomous, and itself is a complex system with various components.
    There is an intimate connection between language and the brain. Specific areas of the brain are devoted to language, and injury to these areas disrupts language. In the young child, injury to or removal of the left hemisphere has severe consequences for language development. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that normal brain development depends on early and regular exposure to language. Under normal circumstances, a child is introduced to language virtually at the moment of birth. Adults talk to him and to each other in his presence. Children do not require explicit language instruction, but they do need exposure to language in order to develop normally. Children who do not receive linguistic input during their formative years do not achieve nativelike grammatical competence. Behavioral tests and brain imaging studies show that late exposure to language alters the fundamental organization of the brain for language. During this critical period, language acquisition proceeds easily, swiftly, and without external intervention. After this period, the acquisition of grammar is difficult and for some individuals never fully achieved. Children deprived of language during this critical period show atypical patterns of brain lateralization(尤指脑部的)偏侧优势. The human brain is primed to develop language in specific areas of the left hemisphere, but the normal process of brain specialization depends on early and systematic experience with language. Beyond the critical period, the human brain seems unable to acquire the grammatical aspects of language, even with substantial linguistic training. However, it is possible to acquire words and various conversational skills after this point. This evidence suggests that the critical period is for the acquisition of certain aspects of language, but not all aspects.
    2014-01-29 11:24:39 1回应
  • 第80页
    Vocal organs would have been strengthened and perfected through the principle of the inherited effects of use
    Nothing would be more interesting than to know from historical documents the exact process by which the first man began to lisp his first words, and thus to be rid of all the theories on the origin of speech.
    All religions and mythologies contain stories of language origin. Philosophers through the ages have argued the question. Scholarly works have been written on the subject. Prizes have been awarded for the “best answer” to this eternally perplexing problem. Theories of divine origin, evolutionary development, and language as a human invention have all been suggested. The difficulties inherent in answering this question are immense. Anthropologists believe that the species has existed for at least one million years, and perhaps for as long as five or six million years. Linguistic history suggests that spoken languages of the kind that exist today have been around for tens of thousands of years at the very least. Though scholars in the latter part of the nineteenth century, who were only interested in hard science, ridiculed, ignored, and even banned discussions of language origin.
    According to Judeo-Christian beliefs, God gave Adam the power to name all things. Similar beliefs are found throughout the world. According to the Egyptians, the creator of speech was the God Thoth. Babylonians believed that the language giver was the god Nabu, and the Hindus attributed our language ability to a female God: Brahma was the creator of the universe, but his wife Sarasvati gave language to us. While myths, customs and superstitions do not tell us very much about language origin, they do tell us about the importance ascribed to language. There is no way to prove or disprove the divine origin of language, just as one cannot argue scientifically for or against the existence of God.
    The idea that the earliest form of language was imitative, or echoic was proposed up to the twentieth century.
    A qualitative step in the development of language most probably relates to evolutionary changes in the brain. The linguist Noam Chomsky expresses this view: it could be that when the brain reached a certain level of complexity it simply automatically had certain properties.
    2014-02-02 18:04:27 2回应
  • 第82页
    The attempt to understand what makes language acquisition and use possible has led to research on brain-mind-language relationship. Neurolinguistics studies the brain mechanisms and anatomical structures that underlie linguistic competence and performance, and how they developed over time.
    The brain is the most complicated organ of the body, controlling motor and sensory activities and thought processes. Research conducted for over a century reveals that different parts of the brain control different body functions. The nerve cells that form the surface of the brain are called the cortex, which serves as the intellectual decision maker, receiving messages from the sensory organs and initiating all voluntary actions. The brain of all higher animals is divided into two parts called the cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by the corpus callosum, a pathway that permits the left and right hemispheres to communicate.
    Although each hemisphere appears to be a mirror image of the other, they exhibit contralateral control of functions. The left hemisphere controls the right side if the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side. Despite the general symmetry of the human body, there is much evidence that the brain is asymmetric, with the left and right hemispheres specialized for different functions. For normal right-handers and many left-handers, the left side of the brain is specialized for language. This lateralization of functions is genetically and neurologically conditioned.
    Aphasia studies show impairment of different parts of the grammar. Patients with Broca's aphasia exhibit impaired syntax and speech problems. Patients with Wernicke's aphasia are fluent speakers who produce semantically empty utterances and have difficulty in comprehension. Anomia is a form of aphasia in which the patient has word-finding difficulties. Patients with jargon aphasia may substitute words unrelated semantically to their intended messages; others produce phonemic substitution errors, sometimes resulting in nonsense forms that make their utterances uninterpretable.
    2014-02-03 11:52:57 1回应
  • 第94页
    Homonym:different words with the same sound.
    Spelling=orthography
    Grammatical category=syntactic class
    Content words=open class
    Function words=closed class
    Content words have semantic content (meaning). Function words play a grammatical role. The brain treats content and function words differently. Indeed, there is a great deal of psychological and neurological evidence to support this claim.
    Morpheme:the minimal units of meaning.
    2014-02-04 13:54:08 回应
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