撒拖对《The Cambridge History of English Poetry》的笔记(1)

The Cambridge History of English Poetry
  • 书名: The Cambridge History of English Poetry
  • 作者: O'Neill, Michael 编
  • 页数: 1115
  • 出版社: Cambridge University Press
  • 出版年: 2010-6-7
  • 第531页





    It is characteristic of Shelley to give full weight to the impulses of the moment, yet not always wholly to endorse such impulses. Julian and Maddalo, written in a conversational idiom that questions the limits of the conversational mode, is a dialogue poem that thrives on perspectival challenges. Julian, optimistic if ‘rather serious’, according to the Preface’s slyly ironic jab (p.213), is a lover of the sublime and the beauty of Venice. His evocation of sunset over the lagoon and city, colouring and recomposing mountains and sky, is Turneresque in its delight in metamorphic incandescence; he captures how it seems ‘as if the Earth and Sea had been / Dissolved into one lake of fire’ (lines 80-1). The Byronic Maddalo, possessed of ‘the most consummate genius’ but tormented by ‘an intense apprehension of the nothingness of human life’ (p.212), provides a counter-voice, offering what for him is a fitter emblem of the human condition: a ‘madhouse and its belfry tower’ (line 107), which he allegorises as typifying the thwarted nature of ‘soul’ (line 123) and ‘rent heart’ (line 126). The fineness of the writing allows for our twin sense that each man’s view is partial and that an account of life that ignored either would be deficient.

    雪莱(作品)的特性是充分体现当下的欲求,但并不总完全认可这些欲求。《朱利安和马达洛》写自一个对交谈模式的极限提出质疑的对话成态,是一首寻求视角/观点挑战对话诗。朱利安,根据引语中狡猾的煽动性(p.213)描述,他乐观得“相当严重”,是威尼斯的卓越与美丽的爱慕者。他对瀉湖和城市之上日落的召唤,(由)着色与重构山脉和天空,是欣快的类(威廉)特纳式的变结构白炽光芒;他将之捕捉为“如同土壤和海洋已经 / 溶于一个火之湖”(80-1行)。 拜伦式的马达洛,具有“最纯熟的天才”却受到“对人类生命之虚无的强烈忧虑”的折磨(第212页),提供了一种对他来说是个贴合于人类处境象征的反声:他以一座“疯人院和它的钟楼”(第107行)为寓意,象征着阻挠在“灵魂”(123行)和“被出租的心灵”(第126行)之间的本质。精细的描写顾及到我们的双胞胎感应中两人的观点都是不完全的,在生活中缺一不可。

    Matters come to a head, even as they are left in the air, when Julian and Maddalo visit a madman. Trapped in his own isolated cell of self-loathing, desperate survival and pathos-ridden, tortuous self-defence, the Maniac refuses to serve as a test-case; his impassioned words check and challenge the assumptions of his visitors, who find that their ‘argument was quite forgot’ (line 520) after overhearing an anguished soliloquy in which the psychic hurts suffered by a self-idealising figure subjected to mockery, scorn and detestation by a lived woman are to the fore. Maddalo wins from the encounter the following aphorism about ‘suffering’ and ‘song’: ‘Most wretched men / Are cradled into poetry by wrong, / They learn in suffering what they teach in song’ (lines 544-6). The irony of being ‘cradled into poetry by wrong’ is typical of Maddalo, but the switchbacks that run between ‘learning’ and ’teaching’, ‘suffering’ and ‘song’ place Shelley’s more idealistic conceptions if poetry - such as will be articulated in A Defence of Poetry - under stress. The poem concludes with a final enigma, the reader shut out from knowledge of ‘how / All happened’ (lines 616-17) between the Maniac and his lady, as though to suggest our own membership of the ‘cold world’ (line 671) unable to respond appropriately to the display of distress; as though, too, to imply a final equivocalness about the merits of disclosure.

    当朱利安和马达洛拜访一个疯子时,这些事情仍然悬而未决。被困在他的自我厌恶、绝望留存和悲情缠身、曲折自卫的孤立牢笼中,疯子拒绝成为一个测试案例;他用激动人心的话语检测和挑战他对访客的假设:在无意中听闻一段关于一个自我理想化的人物关于受到由一个活着的女人的嘲笑、轻蔑和憎恶带来的精神伤害的极其痛苦的独白之后,访客们发现他们的“辩论完全被遗忘了”(第520行)。 马达洛在遭遇以下关于“痛苦”和“歌曲”的格言中获胜:“最可怜的男人 / 因由错误而受到诗歌的滋养,/他们由痛苦学会他们在歌中教的东西”(第544-6行)。 “由错误而受到诗歌的滋养”是典型的马达洛式讽刺,但在“学习”和“教授”、“遭受”和“歌曲”之间的起伏转折则更符合雪莱的理想主义观念,如果诗歌——像它将被在《诗辩》中阐明的那样——在压力之下。 这首诗以一个最终的谜语为结束,读者从了解到的疯子和他的女士之间“怎么发生的 / 这一切”(第616-17行)脱出,如同建议我们自己作为“冷漠世界”成员(第671行)无法对苦难的表现给出适当回应;似乎也暗示了最终关于揭露价值的模棱两可。


    ① fitter emblem

    "Frankenstein", Mary Shelly



    ② rent heart

    Shelley's Process: Radical Transference and the Development of His Major Works

    thwarted nature of ‘soul’ (line 123) and ‘rent heart’ (line 126)究竟是什么意思,原文是这样写的:

    "And such," -- he cried, "is our mortality. And this must be the emblem and the sign Of what should be eternal and divine! -- And like that black and dreary bell, the soul, Hung in a heaven-illumined tower, must toll Our thoughts and our desires to meet below Round the rent heart and pray -- as madmen do For what? they know not, -- till the night of death As sunset that strange vision, severeth Our memory from itself, and us from all We sought and yet were baffled.'





    然而我真的不觉得这首是什么乐观派代表作……拜伦竟然把它当鸡汤喝下去了也是很厉害(x 可能是我没有学过语文(😟

    2017-05-26 06:57:29 回应