eccentric™对《Human Action》的笔记(3)

Human Action
  • 书名: Human Action
  • 作者: Ludwig von Mises
  • 副标题: A Treatise on Economics
  • 页数: 906
  • 出版社: Fox & Wilkes
  • 出版年: 1996-07
  • 第200页
    Liberal social doctrine, based on the teachings of utilitarian ethics and economics, sees the problem of the relation between the government and those ruled from a different angle than universalism and collectivism. Liberalism realizes that the rulers, who are always a minority, cannot lastingly remain in office if not supported by the consent of the majority of those ruled. Whatever the system of government may be, the foundation upon which it is built and rests is always the opinion of those ruled that to obey and to be loyal to this government better serves their own interests than insurrection and the establishment of another regime.
    “自由主义的社会哲学,基于功效主义的伦理和经济学”(上文)。 米塞斯的确挺推崇功利主义的,也喜欢多数决原则的民主与民治(上下文)。
    “The principle of majority rule or government by the people as recommended by liberalism does not aim at the supremacy of the average or common man. But they believe that a man's ability to rule proves itself better by convincing his fellow-citizens than by using force upon them. There is, of course, no guarantee that the voters will entrust office to the most competent candidate. A minority will never win lasting success by other means.
    2013-11-10 21:31:09 回应
  • XVII. INDIRECT EXCHANGE 12. The Limitation on the Issuance of Fiduciary Media
    This is an essential feature or weakness of the business of issuing fiduciary media and granting circulation credit. No system of reserve policy and no reserve requirements as enforced by the laws can remedy it. All that a reserve can do is to make it possible for the bank to withdraw from the market an excessive amount of fiduciary media issued. If the bank has issued more banknotes than its clients can use in doing business with other clients, it must redeem such an excess.
    准备金所能做到的,只是使这个银行可能从市场上把发行的信用媒介过多的部份收回。如果这个银行所发行的钞票多于它的顾客们与别家银行的顾客们交易时所可使用的数量,它就必须把那超过额收回。
    2014-01-13 17:04:47 回应
  • 12. The Limitation on the Issuance of Fiduciary Media
    关于货币替代品这部分不是很好理解。 
    
    "A bank can never issue more money-substitutes than its clients can keep in their cash holdings. The individual client can never keep a larger portion of his total cash holding in money-substitutes than that corresponding to the proportion which his turnover with other clients of his bank bears to his total turnover. For considerations of convenience he will, as a rule, remain far below this maximum proportion. Thus a limit is drawn to the issue of fiduciary media. We may admit that everybody is ready to accept in his current transactions indiscriminately banknotes issued by any bank and checks drawn upon any bank. But he deposits without delay with his own bank not only the checks but also the banknotes of banks of which heis not himself a client. In the further course his bank settles its accounts with the bank engaged. Thus the process described above comes into motion."
    2014-01-13 17:07:02 1回应