古往今来的社会学理论教科书里，绝少不了对涂尔干自杀分类的介绍，可能大家早看烦了，我也记不起那些书上都是怎么写的了，读了原文之后明白了很多。涂尔干对利己型自杀的分析是从“人性的两重性”假设开始的，首先是functions indispensable for physical life:
Since they are made for this purpose only, they are perfected by its attainment……In so far as he has no other needs, he is therefore self-sufficient and can live happily with no other objective than living.
在此之上，还有ideas, feelings and practices，这些活动
are not to repair organic exhaustion nor to provide sound functioning of the organs. All this supra-physical life is built and expanded not because of the demands of the cosmic environment but because of the demands of the social environment.
换言之，人有两重的存在，一个是生物性的存在，它满足自己之后就别无所求；另一个是社会本身在个体身上的体现：个体是“society itself incarnated and individualized in each one of us”（渠敬东所说的“社会决定论构建道德个人主义”早在这里就有明确体现）。
We are bereft of reasons for existence; for the only life to which we could cling no longer corresponds to anything actual; the only existence still based upon reality no longer meets our needs.Because we have been initiated into a higher existence, the one which satisfies an animal or a child can satisfy us no more and the other itself fades and leaves us helpless.
All man's pleasure in acting, moving and exerting himself implies the sense that his efforts are not in vain and that by walking he has advanced. However, one does not advance when one walks toward no goal, or—which is the same thing—when his goal is infinity……to pursue a goal which is by definition unattainable is to condemn oneself to a state of perpectual unhappiness.
This relative limitation and the moderation it involves, make men contented with their lot while stimulating them moderately to improve it; and this average contentment causes the feeling of calm, active happiness……He may seek to give beauty to his life; but his attempts in this direction may fail without causing him to despair. For, loving what he has and not fixing his desire solely on what he lacks, his wishes and hopes may fail of what aspire to, without his being wholly destitute.