Ruth Rogaski, Hygienic Modernity: Meanings of Health and Disease in Treaty-port China. University of California Press, 2004.
此书沈、刘、章三个人已经有很多讨论，我就不需要多说了，虽然他们有争论，但他们的观点我大多同意，少数不同意。这周刚好轮到我报告，所以匆匆忙忙列了个提纲，一并贴出供各位同学参考。 A mixture of hygienic/ medical history, local/ urban study and postcolonism medicine/ medical treatment study, imperialism and colonism study, translational study.
1.PURPOSE “The goal of this book is to place meanings of health and disease at the center of Chinese experiences of modernity.” p.1 “This study seeks to understand the process through which these novel meanings became associated with the term weisheng.” p.2
2.ARGUMENTS 1) How elites imbued changes (encompass modern biomedicine, public health, and personal decorum. P.5) with a significance. P.3 2) In Tianjin after 1900, hygiene was a cornerstone of a modernity imposed by occupying armies. At the same time, hygiene became the most basic constituent of an indelible rhetoric of Chinese deficiency. Those treaty-port elites who enthusiastically embraced hygienic modernity did so at the very moment when it was inextricably entwined with the violence of imperialism. In embracing hygienic modernity, they simultaneously escaped identification with Chinese peasants and evaded the violently imposed stigma of “lack” that the peasantry now bore. P.168 3) Throughout the twentieth century, weisheng became an instrumental discourse informing the Chinese elite’s vision of a modern ideal, a vehicle through which they hoped state, society, and the individual would be transformed. P.300 In general this has not been a study of the popular reception of weisheng, but a glimpse at how weisheng was used, by a segment of the elite, to transform a city and to establish their own identity as “moderns.” P.301
3.FRAMWORK/HOW TO ARGUE Chapters 1 and 2: "An exploration of premodern meanings of weisheng." Chapter 1: "Occurrences of weisheng in Chinese texts published before the twentieth century"; "earlier matrix of meaning and practice associated with the word." P.19 Chapter 2: "Practices of weisheng in the daily life of Tianjin before the city was open to foreign settlement."
Chapter 3: "Western medicine" arrived in Tianjin in the 1860s; midcentury Chinese approaches to health and healing.
Chapters 4 and 5: "The translation processes (Shanghai and Tokyo): weisheng became 'hygienic modernity.'" Chapter 4: John Fryer and a construction of Western knowledge; China's first translations that presented Western ways of hygiene under the rubric weisheng. Chapter 5: Nagayo Sensai and the translation. The "birth" of hygienic modernity; The term: linked the health of the individual to the health of the nation.
Chapter 6: The sudden changes that engulfed Tianjin during the Boxer Uprising of 1900 and an international force (the troops of eight different imperial powers) invaded and occupied the city. A new department of health (weisheng ju) was build.
Chapters 7 and 8: "How weisheng changed the physical and cultural terrain of Tianjin in the first three decades of the twentieth century." Chapter 7: "Modernity's impulse to hide and separate functions of life in order to create a hygienic urban environment." Chapter 8: "Multiple representations of weisheng in Tianjin during the 1920s and 1930s."
Chapter 9 and 10: "The impact of midcentury imperialism on the experience of health and disease in Tianjin."
4.SOURCES Archives/ Medical Reports: Adm.; FO; PRO; DYYY天津市立第一醫院；JA濟安自來水有限公司；TMA天津市檔案；WSC天津市衛生處；ZAWSJ天津市治安維持委員會衛生局. Published: Archives: BYGDLZ北洋公牘檔案；DTYMHYJY都統衙門會議紀要； Local official documents (gazetteers): CXTJFZ重脩天津府志；TJXXZ天津新縣志； Collective documents: DECYPZZ第二次鴉片戰爭；TJWSZL天津文史資料； Newspapers: NCH北華捷報； Temporary Works: TJZSYGJ天津政俗沿革記; O.D.Rasmussen, Tientsin: An Illustrated Outline History (Tianjin: Tientsin Press,1925.). ......
5.TINY FLAWS (JUST OMIT THEM) p.32 countdown to the 5th line:qan---gan; p.46 countdown to the 11th line: Si ku chuan shu---Si ku quan shu (unified spelling all over the book); p.66 countdown to the 13th line: yisheng zuo qiao---yisheng zuo jiao; p.308 2nd line: 不尊——不遵; countdown to the 7th line: 同任會——同人會; p.309 countdown to the 3rd line:後籘新平——後藤新平; p.310 6th line:郭末若——郭沫若; p.312 17th line:論語精意——論語精義; p.314 countdown to the 15th line:台毒——胎毒;last line: 同任會——同人會; p.316 countdown to the 14th line:管口——營口; p.317 8th line:鄭官應——鄭觀應; p.319 DECYPZZ Qi Shihe---Qi Sihe（齊思和）;zhanzhen---zhanzheng（戰爭）.
6.DICUSSIONS/METHODOLOGY 1) Conceptions: weisheng or yangsheng (nourishing a long life; prolong life)? (p.46: A more complete discussion of Chinese paths to hygiene might focus on the thousands of texts dedicated to yangshen.;P.126: Liang Qichao: the Way of Nurturing Life.) Cleaness or “Guarding life?”
2) Power: Relationship between state and society, government and individuals; Relationship between elites and ordinary people, imperialism and semicolonism. Dominique Laporte, Histoire de la merde: How the state intrudes into the private space of the individuals; how the national machine’s 'power' expands.
Zheng Guanying’s weisheng writings suggest that in the late nineteenth century, foreign colonialism in China was devoid of the power to “colonize the body.” P.132 In the Patriotic Hygiene Campaign the health of the individual was equated with the health of the nation…. Achieving this national health would in turn guarantee the status and sovereignty of the nation against the threat of foreign imperialism.p.298 In the twentieth century, weisheng compelled the state to create a hygienically modern nation in order to counter the specter of national deficiency. p.299
3) Cross study and the focus: its advantage and disadvantage ①The “paradox” of local study: Special or general? (Logically speaking both of them own values, so this question is a pseudo topic.) ②Urban/ Rural area; Treaty port/ Inland 另外，可考虑一下广州也有一段被占领“殖民”时期，其与天津的异同。 ③Trans-regional study (Shifting)/ Centralize narration “Overall, a local history approach facilitates the simultaneous consideration of both the mundane (if not the profane) and the sublime: it investigates where people went to the bathroom as well as how people envisioned the nation. This study tries to find the meaningful connections between the two.”P.3 “This tale of health and disease in a Chinese treaty port rests at the intersection of three scholarships: the history of medicine, urban history, and translation studies.” P.4