A New Mediaevalism?
A study of Bull’s theory of European Integration
As a saying P11  goes, theories of international integration, like all political theories, are produced in order to better understand ongoing political events and solve distressing problems that preoccupy political leaders. This paper centers on how the english school of international relations understand the european integration, the viewpoint from Hedley Bull that sovereign states might dissolve and be replaced by a modern and secular equivalent of the kind of universal political organisation P245  will be the core. In addition, I propose to consider the theory of international society and the influence of european integration.
Key words : English school , New Mediaevalism , European integration , International society
The English School, like Stanley Hoffmann wrote in the foreword of The anarchical society xxiv  , is the British approach to international relations which drives its originality from its view of international relations as a complex set of relations among states that form an international society. The international society exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values, form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another, and share in the working of common institutions P13 . We can find that the European Union (EU) is totally conform the standard of international society after having a careful comare. Unfortunately, the anarchical society was published in the year of 1979, during which there is no EU in the world but its elderly counterpart European Economic Community (EEC). As a matter of fact, EEC was considered as a potential power which devote contribution to contemporary world order, according to Bull’s opinion.
While answering the question of “Is there any evidence that the states system may be giving place to a secular reincarnation of the system of overlapping or segmented authority that characterised mediaeval Christendom”P254 Bull discovered a new concept ---- New medievalism, to describe the erosion of state sovereignty in the contemporary globalised world. Bull argues that the contemporary international system is evolving into one with multiple and overlapping sources of power. Processes characterising this "new medievalism" include the increasing powers held by regional organisations such as the European Union, as well as the spread of sub-national and devolved governments, such as those of Scotland and Catalonia.  These challenge the exclusive authority of the state. Private military companies, multinational corporations and the resurgence of worldwide religious movements (e.g. Political Islam) similarly indicate a reduction in the role of the state and a decentralisation of power and authority.
Meanwhile, Bull tried to analysis five figures of contemporary world politics which provide New Mediaevalism evidence of such a trend in his book The Anarchical Society. The first two figures, The Regional Integration of States / The Disintegration of States, are related to our topic. He criticized some claims from the rhetoric of the european movement that European Integration would demonstrate to the world at large the ability of a group of states voluntarily to submerge their sovereignty  . The difficulties about this view, in his opinion, is that if the process of integration of European states were to lead to the creation of a single European state, the upshot would be to reduce the NUMBER of states but leave the INSTITUTION of states precisely.
Thus, Bull consisted that it is more profitable to focus on the process in an intermediate stage by which can offer an evidence that European Integration is bringing a qualitative change in the states system. The Process may protracted uncertainly about the locus of sovereignty, and become a small step to the situation of a New Mediaevalism, in which the concept of sovereignty is recognised to be irrelevant P256 . The crucial test, within Bull’s thoughts, was whether national government in the community had the right to secede.
In the 21st century, his assumption has become parts of the reality. Though threatened by the shadow of European sovereign debts crisis, no country, even Greece, is willing to quit the euro-zone or EU. This might partly because these countries do not have enough rights for it. Also, the EU have received an unfriendly given name ---- The Brusel Monster, just because of its uncontrollable operation. But such a state of affairs in Europe would not mean that the global states system had been eclipsed P256 , only that in this particular area, there was a “hybrid entity” which did not conform to the prevailing norms.
To sum up, we have recognised that there ARE certain trend - particularly in relations to the possible emergence of a New Mediaevalism form of world order - which replace the sovereign state system. However, the New Mediaevalism might occur to the European Integration uniquely, as the Middle Age is only to describe the Europe.
Notes and References
. Hedley Bull , The Anarchical society: A study of order in world politics Third Edition
(Paper for Pan-European IR Conference, Sept 2001)
. David M.Wood and Birol A.Yesilada, The Emerging European Union Longman; 5 edition (July 6, 2009)
. Barry Buzan, The English School as a Research Program: an overview, and a proposal for reconvening, BISA Conference, Manchester , December 1999, http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/buzan99.htm.
. See Roberto Rotondo, Towards a new Middle Ages? http://www.30giorni.it/articoli_id_5335_l3.htm?id=5335
. Ernst B.Haas , The Uniting of Europe : Political, Social, and Economics Forces, 1950-1957 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1958); and Haas, Beyond the Nation-State (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1964)