Mind that this is only the excerpts from this book, not a review....
C1 Theory 1. A theory can't be obvious, it involves complex relations of a systematic kind 2. Succeed in challenging and reorienting thinking in fields other than those to which they apparently belong 3. Written out of the literary field about everything under the sun, which visions or arguments have been suggestive, productive, offer accounts others can use about meaning, nature and culture, functioning of psyche, relation of public and private, historical forces.
common sense is historical construction a critique of common sense and exploration of alternative conceptions, the unsettling of anything have been taken for granted
Derrida on writing the idea of the original is created by he copies, and that the original is always deferred, our common sense notion of reality as sth present is untenable, experience is always mediated by signs and original is produced as an effect of signs, of supplement
C2 Literature Nature: foregrounding of language, integration of language, fiction, aesthetic object, intertextual or self-reflexive construct could civilize people the noise of culture as well as its information an entropic force as well as cultural capital a writing that calls for a reading and engages readers in problems of meaning
C3 Cultural studies vs Literary studies social political, social totality vs specifity of cultural object signifying rise of theory, pop culture, supposed to be radical the suspension of the demand for immediate intelligibility, the willingness to work at the boundaries of meaning, opening oneself to unexpected, productive effects of language and imagination, and the interest in how meaning and pleasure are produced
C4 Poetics vs hermeneutics language effects vs meaning interpretation linguistics, Saussure, sign vs Reader's response intention(writer), text(work), context(world), reader...recovery&suspicion
C6 Stories what drives narrative is the masculine urge to mastery, the desire to unveil the truth identification stories have the function of teaching us about the world, showing how it worksm enabling us through the devices of focalization-to see things from vantage points, and to understand others' motives that in general are opaque to us. EM Forster
Giving knowledge of the world through its sense-making
C7 Performative vs Constative act vs state speech act - the stress is on ACT! literature as performative: 1.contributes to a defence of literature: literature is not frivolous pseudo-statements but takes its place among the acts of language that transform the world, bringing into being the things that they name. 2.the performative breaks the link between meaning(literary utterances) and the intention of the speaker(author) for what act I perform with my words is not determined by my intention but by social and linguistics conventions. what it does? how it fits? Whether works happily? what it is for a literary sequence to work? what knows or what is known?
Judith Butler - Gender Trouble The fundamental categories of identity are cultural and social productions, which is the result of political cooperation. create the effect of natural and by imposing norms they threaten to exclude those who don't conform. gender as performative, in the sense that it is not what one is but what one does! ACT! reiterative, repetitive 人无自主选择权，因人生于gender这个matrix里，受支配和被主体化(subjectivated)
Repetition "Queer" - the force of the insult comes not from the intention of the speaker, but from the fact that the shout "Queer" repeats shouted insults of the past, interpellations or acts of address which produce the homosexual subject through reiterated shaming or abjection(chorus) the permative force comes from the fact that it is recognized as conforming to a model, a norm, and is linked with a history of exclusion
J. L. Austin vs Judith Butler A: the repetition of a formula on a single occasion makes sth happen B: a special case of the massive and obligatory repetition that produces historical and social realities.
the nature of literary event - performative A. Literary work accomplishes a singular, specific act...creates that reality which is the work, and its sentences accomplishes sth in particular in that work B: A work succeeds, becomes an event by a massive repetition that takes up norms and possibly changes things
specific act & our encounters with the world individuals acts & social conventions event & norm ACT! whether the image corresponds to reality or not? is there a reality? an origin? logocentrism?
C8 2 basic question on Identity, which is what theory concerns most 1. the self sth given or sth made(constructed) 2. conceived in individual or in social terms thus 4 basic trends of modern thought. 1.given and individual - treats the self "I" as sth inner and unique, prior to the acts it performs, an inner core whichis variously expressed(or not expressed) in word and deed 2.given and social - the self is determined by its origins and social attributes: you are male or female, white or black... 3. made and individual - the changing nature of self, which becomes what it is through its particular acts 4. made and social - I become what I am through the various subject positions I occupy
theoretical treatments of Identity literature concerns, made it a theme, formed by forces decentered subject - not a source or center to which one refers to explain events psychoanalysis - treats the subject not as a unique essence but as the product of intersecting psychic, sexual, and linguistic mechanisms, identification with other(Oedipus). marxist - the subject as determined by class position feminist - the impact of socially constructed gender roles making the subject what he or she is Queer - the heterosexual subject is constructed through the repression of the possibility of homosexuality
how identity is formed in literary works - amply represented identification of reader - vicarious experiences, enabling them to know how it feels to be in particular situations and thus to acquire dispositions to act and feel in certain ways
the modern individuals - identity and worth are thought to come from feelings and personal qualities rather than in society. the true self is the one you find through love and through your relations with family and friends
pervasive structure - internal divisions agency 对subject的操控权，在自己还是被动 - 后殖民联动 Theory offers not a set of solutions but the prospect of further thought.