The languages of the world.
1. The essential difference between a dialect or a language is that When people speak different languages, they don’t understand each other (A language is made up of many dialects, and the people who speak those dialects generally understand each other).
2. Languages from families. To tell, The best evidence is if they look or sound like each other. When we see this kind of similarity, we can draw the obvious conclusion. All these words must have a common origin. It took several hundred years to develop a daughter language (sister languages) from a parent language(Latin). But once they do, we end up with a family of languages. The problem is that in many parts of the world there are no historical facts to help us group languages into families. Here are the names of some families of Europe because of the documentary left.
a) the Latin language, spoken by the Romans.
b) the Germanic family of languages.
c) the Celtic family of languages.
d) the Slavic family.
There are some languages which, as it were, never had children. Greek stands all alone, as do the languages of Armenia and Albania.
3. Sir William Jones proposed that actually many of these languages might belong to the same family. The ancient language is called Indo-European. When they travelled all around the world, their language changed dramatically along the way and also, end up with kinds of languages now, like Latin and Germanic.
There are about 6,000 languages. A language is made up of many dialects, and the people who speak those dialects generally understand each other, but when people speak different languages, they don’t. Languages from families. That’s how they are connected. It took several hundred years to develop a daughter language from a parent language in the travel of language speakers. Besides, some languages never had children. Those are found from documentaries. As for the proposal that languages might belong to the same family, i think it depends on the order of language formation and the travel of ancient people. If language formation first, our families are likely to belong to one family and Vise versa. Actually whether they are or not, different places are certain to raise different people and culture, and that’s why the world is so interesting.
1. All the 6,000 or so languages of the world have certain things in common, sentences, nouns and verbs, vowels and consonants, rhythm and intonation.
b) Tones (melody)
c) Grammar (the order of words in a sentence, the change in words’ meaning while changing the word endings)
d) Vocabulary (On the surface they seem nice and familiar, but it turns out that we don’t know them at all; words don’t match up in an easy one-to-one sort of way)
e) Conversations themselves can cause problems
Generally languages are different in sounds, tones, grammar, vocabulary and are also different in conversations. Specifically, the melody of a word, the order of words in a sentence, the word endings and so on can make sense. Actually, i think the differences in languages stem from the cultures, or the different cultures raise different languages. So, it will be helpful to learn a language while also leaning its culture and the development of a word.
1. All living languages change because people are changing all the time, their language changes too, to keep up with them, New words come into use, Old words go out of use. But the old words never disappear entirely, these words are still there
in the plays.
2. Every part of language changes.
1) Words, Grammar, Pronunciation, The way we talk to each other, spelling and punctuation change. But they do not change at the same rate.
a. Vocabulary is the area where we most often notice the way language changes, mostly relative to internet
b. It takes a while for a change in grammar to spread throughout society.
c. Changes in pronunciation takes a while,too,but faster than grammar.
d. The writing system,which refers to the way we spell, punctuate, and capitalize words, changes most slowly.
e. The change of the way we talk to each other.
3. A new usage arrives when most people in a society decide to use it.They may say they don’t like the new usage. But after a while everyone gets used to the new way of saying something.
As the author said, Languages change because people are changing all the time, to keep up with them, New words come into use, Old words go out of use. Words, but also Grammar, Pronunciation, The way we talk to each other, spelling and punctuation are all changing. But because of their different features, they do not change at the same rate.Vocabulary is the area where we most often notice the way language changes, mostly relative to internet. And then grammar. The writing system,which refers to the way we spell, punctuate, and capitalize words, changes most slowly. The change of the way we talk to each other. What impressed me most is people’s attitude to the change. It is said that after a while, everyone, even those who don’t like the new usage, will get used to the new way of saying something. It seems that a new usage is depend on the opinion of most people in a society which is like the democracy.
The electronic revolution
1. The computer has changed the nature of our language lives. Because of the internet, we type more, and instant message is popular, which requires us to be instant, so that a new style of writing English is forming.
2. The new style of writing English means that only if what they type can be understood, we do not have to waste time by using extra keystrokes. The changes is the following.
a) internet abbreviations
b) No capital letters
c) Leave punctuation
d) Punctuation marks
e) Recognizable spelling mistakes
f) Sentences split into small chunks
g) strange-looking conversations
3. New ways of communicating and what do they mean to the young and old people. Also, the way we communicate by computer is of many different styles. (some are worrying about the standard English/the word limitation of the face book/...)
1. Textese: time-The messages are sending information about what’s going on in the world, and asking us for our reactions.
2. Who- it’s different when different people use it, or for different purposes. (old/young, weather station/campaign office)
3. The text:
a) Only a small proportion of the words in a collection of texts are actually textisms.
b) The so-called ‘new’ abbreviations had been used over 200 years ago- rebus games
Very few are brand new
a) Save time and energy
b) Good fun
5. The best texters are the best spellers. They have to know how to spell before we can text well and how to relate letters to sounds. Also, be quite creative (text-message poems within very strict limits).
Internet enables us the ability to keep in touch with others beyond the time and space. New ways of communicating, like blog and twitter, and computer typing are created and promote the formation of new styles of writing English. And these styles are different from one another. For example, instant message requires us to be instant, it means that only if what they type can be understood, we do not have to waste time by using extra keystrokes. Thus, they choose to use internet abbreviations, not to capital letters, leave punctuation, and they create punctuation marks, allow recognizable spelling mistakes, plit sentences into small chunks and so on, which seems that new language is created. However, some so-called ‘new’ abbreviations had been used over 200 years ago, known as rebus games. Also, the proportion of the testisms is very small. But there are still something fun being created, like text-message poems. Also, good texters need to master the word well, maybe it even encourage people to strengthen the standard English. For the creative fun and the probability, i think the change is all right.
Accents and dialects
1. A dialect is a way of talking that belongs to a particular part of a country.
a) We can tell where they their hometown is from their dialect. There are more English dialects per square mile in Britain than in any other part of the English-speaking world because Britain has such a varied history. But all countries have accents and dialects.
b) Some dialects have hundreds of local words; Dialects also have distinctive patterns of grammar; Dialects are always changing.[vocabulary/grammar]
c) In some degree, we can say that language is dialect on a grand scale.
2. Accents are only to do with pronunciation.
a) Like dialects, they tell us which part of a country, or which country, someone comes from. All the dialects have an accent.
b) To be more precise, There’s no such thing as a country with just one accent.
c) There’s no such thing a person with just one accent. One’s accent is a mixture of sounds from where he has lived; One’s accent changes, also, depending on the kind of occasion. Everyone will unconsciously slip into other accents.
d) Accents can also tell others about the kind of social background we have or the kind of job we do.
i. neutral accent, their accent could be from anywhere, is called Received Pronunciation to keep their distance from the lower classes.
ii. Thus, a new kind of accent came into being. Before long, that accent was the ‘voice of Britain’(posh/cultured accents).
iii. It was never spoken by huge numbers but it was the accent that people associated with someone who was from the higher social classes or who had received the best education.
iv. The division between upper and lower classes isn’t as sharp as it used to be; And some accents, such as those from Birmingham or Newcastle, were hardly used at all.
v. People have strong feelings about accents.
One’s Accents and dialects can tell us where he/she is come from. The difference between accents and dialects is whether it is related with pronunciation or with grammar and vocabulary. All countries have accents and dialects. To some degree, we can say that language is a dialect on a grand scale. A country has different accents and a person’s accent is a mixture of different places. Also, the change in occasion leads to the accent change. What’s more, Accents can also tell others about our social background or our job. Neutral accent, to keep their distance between higher and lower classes when created, is called received pronunciation. With the class mobility, it becomes a new kind of accent, cultured accent, like mandarin in China. In addition, people have different feelings about accents.
a) accents and dialects
b) Age (tell how old they are from the voice: the sound quality of the voice; from vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar they use);
c) Sexes (voice; expressions);
d) Ethnic (not usages which signal regional dialects);
e) Social class;
f) the relationships people have with each other (friend/stranger);
g) the actual situation (Time zone).
The author said that Ways of Language variation can be accents and dialects: Age; Sexes; Ethnicity; Social class; the relationships people have with each other ; the actual situation. But not definitely. When we hear someone talking, we get the sound quality and the expression. We can tell people’s age and sex from both their voice and their expressions. The usages of regional dialects show us the ethnicity. So as Social class. The relationships also influence the expression we use. It will be different when we talk to a friend or stranger. The same, to suit actual situation, people speak differently.
1. Play with many different ways:
b) Especially play with sounds and letters
a) Putting on funny voice
b) Making puns: A pun happens when we take a word that has one meaning and replace it by another word sounding the same (sometimes not exactly the same sounds) but with a different meaning.
i. Palindromes: Make words or sentences which read the same way in both directions
ii. Anagrams: Make words where the letters are changed around to make a new word with a related meaning
iii. Lipograms: Make sentences where no use is made of a particular letter, such as ‘e’, the most frequent letter in the English alphabet
iv. Univocalics: Make sentences where every word contains the same vowel
v. crossword puzzles
vi. letter-squares containing hidden words
vii. Rhymes: children’ songs; poems. (There are thousands of them. Each generation uses some of the old ones, and makes up new ones.)
4. Why: For fun & Serious purpose. Everyone around us are playing language after we are born. In some degree, language itself is a kind of play.
Usually we learn a language by playing with it when we’re babies. There are hundreds of ways for playing. But people tend to play with sounds and letters especially. For sounds, putting on funny sounds and making puns are popular. For letters, there are various way to have fun, such as palindromes, anagrams and rhymes. Not only English, Chinese and other languages also can be played. Many ancient Chinese poems have their own rules and rhymes which make our expression aesthetically beautiful or bring us fun. Why not just consider language use itself as a play? We create our systems for serious and daily usage of language just like we make rules for some language games.
1. To find the best way of describing people who are different in any way from most others in society without suggesting any negative connotations (this name is supposed to give no offence to the people it refers to), Governments, employers, and other social groups sometimes try to sort out the problem by favouring one name and banning another. We say that the name is politically correct,which is the official name for something.
E.g. Cripple - disabled/handicapped - differently abled/physically changed
Negro - the blacks - African American
Waiter - waiter/waitress
a) It is still difficult because each person has different feelings and understandings to the same words so that it’s hard to say a word is not offensive at all.
b) People are actually too sensitive to the words. We should pay attention that the different is just one aspect of a whole picture. The so called ‘PC’ does prevent people from offending others. It is the way most of us look at the difference that eliminate the offending and even promote the diversity.
To find the best way of describing people who are different in any way from most others in society without suggesting any negative connotations, Governments, employers, and other social groups try to use one official name and ban another. We say the name is politically correct. However, since each person has different feelings and understandings to the same words, so it’s hard to say a word is not offensive at all. People are actually too sensitive to words. We should pay attention that the difference is just one aspect of a whole picture. The so called ‘PC’ does prevent people from offending others. It is the way most of us look at the difference that eliminate the offending and even promote the diversity.
1. Linguistics is the science of language. Linguists are the people who study language in this way or who are fluent in several foreign languages.
2. The difference between ‘language’ and ‘languages’. One can study language without needing to be fluent in lots of languages.
3. The thing Linguists do is to hunt for the wonderful sounds, words, and sentence patterns that aren’t found so far. Since the accents and dialects are of many varieties, the languages change constantly, and the internet promotes the fresh ways of language use, linguists always have things to do. They concentrate on some specific era, doing researches and making discoveries.
4. These discoveries are not only interesting but also useful.
1. When linguistics is used to solve problems of how language works and how it is learned and used, it’s called applied linguistics. Applied Linguists use their special knowledge to help people improve their services in several fields where language is a central concern. The field of foreign language teaching and learning was a particularly important area.
2. The sorts of questions which applied linguists explore:
a) Speech therapy
b) The dying language
c) The language printed on things we buy in the shops
d) Crime detection (Forensic linguists)
e) To help people use the internet better
f) to analyse the language of the Web page to establish exactly what it is talking about, and then match the page to advertisements that are more suitable
3. As the society develops, the new ways of language use will come up, and some fresh discoveries or eras to study appear as well. However, we don’t know what the change will be. Sill the study of languages continues and we’ll handle the changes as usual.