“All great religious leaders, and also all great artists and intellectual discoverers, have shown a sense of moral compulsion to fulfil their creative impulses, and a sense of moral exaltation when they have done so. This emotion is the basis of what the Gospels call duty to God, and is (I repeat) separable from theological belief. ” ——Bertrand Russell
罗素把ethics分成两种，一种是社会的，一种是个人的。通常意义上的道德都是前者，个体要遵循什么样的规范，才能保持一个社会的秩序和良性的运行，它只把人作为一个工具看待。 而个人的echics无关社会，是个体对美，对永恒的探索和追求。古希腊人从数学的美中看到永恒，所以他们计算抛物线的面积，完全不考虑这是否有用。牛顿在探索物理定律中感受到上帝创世的永恒旋律。而每一件伟大的艺术作品的诞生，都是创作者寻求的自我表达—— As if you are talking to some eternal being, in the torrent, tempest, and the whirlwind of passion.
“...prophets, mystics, poets, scientific discoverers, are men whose lives are dominated by a vision; they are essentially solitary men. When their dominant impulse is strong, they feel that they cannot obey authority if it runs counter to what they profoundly believe to be good. Although, on this account, they are often persecuted in their own day, they are apt to be, of all men, those to whom posterity pays the highest honour. It is such men who put into the world the things that we most value, not only in religion, in art, and in science, but also in our way of feeling towards our neighbour, for improvements in the sense of social obligation, as in everything else, have been largely due to solitary men whose thoughts and emotions were not subject to the dominion of the herd.”
“If human life is not to become dusty and uninteresting it is important to realise that there are things that have a value which is quite independent of utility. What is useful because it is a means of something else, and the something else, if it is not in turn merely a means, must be valued for its own sake, for otherwise the usefulness is illusory.”