1 discribe the environment
!Kung people is traditional group of !Kung San in the Dobe area of northwestern Botswana. The Dobe area, on the edge of the Kalahari desert, falls into an ecosystem classified as semi-arid. The land, covered with grass, thorn and scrub brush, and spindly trees, ahs a flat apperaance that disguises a variety of low hills, dunes, flats, and river beds. The rivers are active only about twice a decade. The mean elevation is about 3,300 feet above sea level, and temperatures vay form below freezing in the winter to abover 100F in summer. The wet season lasts four to six months; annual rainfall varies form five to forty inches. Then comes a brief autumn, followed by a three to four month winter with about six weeks of freezing and near-freezing night-time temperatures. Spring begins late in Aug and turn quickly into a hot dry summer in which temperatures hovering above 110 F are not uncommon. This environment lack the dependable sources of water.
The !Kung are masters of survival in this environment, capable of responding to its ever-changing and often extreme demands. Adaptability is the key to their success.
2 methodology of studying the Kung
The book, Nisa, written by Marjorie Shostak. All the story was told to Shostak in the !Kung language by Nisa, an African woman of about fifty years of age, living in a remote corner of Botswana. Nisa is a member of one of the last remaining traditional gatherer-hunter societies.
Preparation is an important stage. Shostak take the long time to prepare: he learned the language, went to gathering expedition, followed along on hunt, ate bush food and so on.
4 upbring of children
!Kung children spend their first few years in almost constant close contact with their mothers. The !Kung infant has continual access to the mother's breast, usually for at least three years. Separation from the mother becomes more frequent after the middle of the second year. Comparing with mother, father does not company children more time. Men spend only a small fraction of the time that women do in the company of children, especially infants. !Kung woman are the major providers of child care and carry young children almost everywhere they go.
The children be taught by the local culture: Kung economy is based on sharing, and children are encouraged to sahre things form tehir infancy.
Kung parents are tolerant toward children's angry outbursts, and they will give some excuses for children.
Although Kung think children need to be disciplined, their efforts to do so are minimal.
!Kung children are discourageed form fighting, but anger is recognized as something they ultimately have to learn to handle themselves.
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