Behind those rosy headlines, however, lay a thorny problem.
这句话写的好好！Rosy/thorny: 除了字面的玫瑰/刺的意思，还指前景光明的、美好的/棘手的。应该是英语中一个常用的双关。 查到一篇文章的题目是 Obama's rosy scenario turns thorny
The root of our problems is not that we’re in a Great Recession, or a Great Stagnation, but rather that we are in the early throes of a Great Restructuring.
The difficulty of automating their work reminds us of a quote attributed to a 1965 NASA report advocating manned space flight: “Man is the lowest-cost, 150-pound, nonlinear, all-purpose computer system which can be mass-produced by unskilled labor.”
Economic progress comes from constant innovation in which people race with machines.
作者提出 Race with machines, not against machines.
Digital progress, in fact, is so rapid and relentless that people and organizations are having a hard time keeping up. So in this chapter we want to focus on recommendations in two areas: improving the rate and quality of organizational innovation, and increasing human capital—ensuring that people have the skills they need to participate in today’s economy, and tomorrow’s.
Organizational innovation: co-inventing new organizational structures, processes, and business models that leverage ever-advancing technology and human skills.
Some of the most valuable knowledge in an economy is dispersed among individuals. It is the knowledge of the particular circumstances of time and place. … To know of and put to use a machine not fully employed, or somebody's skill which could be better utilized, or to be aware of a surplus stock which can be drawn upon during an interruption of supplies, is socially quite as useful as the knowledge of better alternative techniques. And the shipper who earns his living from using otherwise empty or half-filled journeys of tramp-steamers, or the estate agent whose whole knowledge is almost exclusively one of temporary opportunities, or the arbitrageur who gains from local differences of commodity prices, are all performing eminently useful functions based on special knowledge of circumstances of the fleeting moment not known to others.
When businesses are based on bits instead of atoms, then each new product adds to the set of building blocks available to the next entrepreneur instead of depleting the stock of ideas the way minerals or farmlands are depleted in the physical world.
The process of innovation often relies heavily on the combining and recombining of previous innovations, the broader and deeper the pool of accessible ideas and individuals, the more opportunities there are for innovation.
Combinatorial explosion is one of the few mathematical functions that outgrows an exponential trend. And that means that combinatorial innovation is the best way for human ingenuity to stay in the race with Moore’s Law.
这个观点很有意思。从摩尔定律来看，计算机的指数型发展是爆炸性的。而在数学上，combinatorial explosion是快于exponential trend的。因此排列组合式的创新是人类与机器赛跑最好的策略。
Basic instructional methods, involving a teacher lecturing to rows of passive students, have changed little in centuries. As the old joke goes, it’s a system for transmitting information from the notes of the lecturer to the notes of the student without going through the brain of either.
This finding implies that some companies—the top performers—were racing ahead of the rest to explore and exploit new technology-enabled business models. They were homesteading on a digital frontier, opening up new territory that others would eventually settle in.
The old Chinese curse, “May you live in interesting times.”
Evidence that the phrase was in use as early as 1936 is provided in a memoir written by Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen, the British Ambassador to China in 1936 and 1937, and published in 1949. He mentions that before he left England for China in 1936, a friend told him of a Chinese curse, "May you live in interesting times."
Frederic René Coudert, Jr. also recounts having heard the phrase at the time:
Some years ago, in 1936, I had to write to a very dear and honoured friend of mine, who has since died, Sir Austen Chamberlain, brother of the present Prime Minister, and I concluded my letter with a rather banal remark "that we were living in an interesting age". Evidently he read the whole letter, because by return mail he wrote to me and concluded as follows: "Many years ago I learned from one of our diplomats in China that one of the principal Chinese curses heaped upon an enemy is, 'May you live in an interesting age.'" "Surely", he said, "no age has been more fraught with insecurity than our own present time." That was three years ago.
There is a Chinese curse which says 'May he live in interesting times.' Like it or not we live in interesting times. They are times of danger and uncertainty; but they are also more open to the creative energy of men than any other time in history.
When discussing jobs and unemployment, there has been a great deal of attention paid to issues like weak demand, outsourcing, and labor mobility but relatively little attention given to technology’s role. We felt that this was a serious omission and wanted to correct it.
Every generation has perceived the limits to growth that finite resources and undesirable side effects would pose if no new … ideas were discovered. And every generation has underestimated the potential for finding new … ideas. We consistently fail to grasp how many ideas remain to be discovered. … Possibilities do not merely add up; they multiply.
When Bill Clinton assembled the top minds of the nation to discuss the economy in 1992, no one mentioned the Internet.
时代变化太快了，正在迈入棋盘的下半部分（the Second Half of the Chessboard）的我们呀。
“Perhaps the most important ideas of all are meta-ideas—ideas about how to support the production and transmission of other ideas.” The digital frontier is just such a meta-idea—it generates more ideas and shares them better than anything else we’ve ever come up with.
the digital frontier 总觉得这个词酷酷的