一. Political Institutions
Social Forces and Political Institutions
1) In a complex society community is produced by political action and maintained by political institutions.
2) As social forces became more variegated, political institutions had to become more complex and authoritative. It is precisely this development, however, which failed to occur in many modernizing societies in the twentieth century. Social forces were strong, political institutions weak. Legislatures and executives, public authorities and political parties remained fragile and disorganized. The development of the state lagged behind the evolution of society.
Criteria of Political Institutionalization: Adaptability, Complexity, Autonomy, Coherence
1) The more adaptable an organization or procedure is, the more highly institutionalized it is.
2) The more complicated an organization is, the more highly institutionalized it is.
Both Plato and Aristotle suggested that the most practical state was the "polity" combining the institutions of
democracy and oligarchy.
3) In a highly developed political system, political organizations have an integrity which they lack in less developed systems. In some measure, they are insulated from the impact of nonpolitical groups and procedures.
In a developed political system the autonomy of the system is protected by mechanisms that restrict and
moderate the impact of new groups
4) The more unified and coherent an organization is, the more highly institutionalized it is.
Political Institutions and Public Interests
The capacity to create political institutions is the capacity to create public interests.
A society with highly institutionalized governing organizations and procedures is more able to articulate and achieve its public interests.
The problems of development and modernization are rooted in the need to create more effective, more adaptive, more complex, and more rationalized organizations.
二. Modernization and Political Consciousness
Social mobilization involves changes in the aspirations of individuals, groups, and societies; economic development involves changes in their capabilities. Modernization requires both.
Modernization and Violence
1) More modern societies are generally more stable and suffer less domestic violence than less modern societies.
2) Both the level of social mobilization and level of economic development are directly associated with political stability. Modernity goes with stability.
3) Modernity breeds stability, but modernization breeds instability. Evidence did exist to suggest that causes of violence in such nations lay with the modernization rather than with the backwardness.
4) In a fundamental sense, the areas of Marxist strength are the most Westernized.
5) The rapid influx of large numbers of people into newly developing urban areas invites mass movements. The European and particularly the Scandinavian experience demonstrates that wherever industrialization occurred rapidly, introducing sharp discontinuities between the pre-industrial and industrial situation, more rather than less extremist working-class movements emerged. The combined rate of change on six of eight indicators of modernization (primary and postprimary education; caloric consumption; cost of living; radios; infant mortality; urbanization; literacy; and national income) for 67 countries between 1935 and 1962 correlated 0.647 with political instability in those countries between 1955 and 1961.
6) In general, the higher the level of education of the unemployed, alienated, or otherwise dissatisfied person, the more extreme the destabilizing behavior which results.
7) Social mobilization / Economic development = Social frustration
Social frustration / Mobility opportunities = Political Pariticipation
(absence of Mobility opportunities, low ratio of want formation to want satisfaction)
Political Participation / (low level of) Political Institutionalization = Political Instability
8) Economic development increases economic inequality at the same time that social mobilization decreases the legitimacy of that inequality. Both aspects of modernization combine to produce political instability.
Modernization and Corruption
1) Corruption is one measure of the absence of effective political institutionalization. Public officials lack autonomy and coherence, and subordinate their institutional roles to exogenous demands. Corruption may be more prevalent
in some cultures than in others but in most cultures it seems to be most prevalent during the most intense phases of modernization.
2) Modernization involves a change in the basic values of the society.
Modernization creates new sources of wealth and power.
Modernization encourages corruption by the changes it produces on the output side of the political system.
The City-Country Gap
1) The sources of instability in a modernizing society are seldom in its poorest or most backward areas; they are almost always in the most advanced sectors of the society. As politics becomes more and more urban, it becomes less and less stable.
2) A crucial turning point in the expansion of political participation in a modernizing society is the inauguration of the rural masses into national politics.
三. Political Stability
1）Praetorian politics: low levels of institutionalization and high levels of participation, where social forces using their own methods act directly in the political sphere.
Civic politics: high ratio of institutionalization to participation
2) Both the mass society and the participant society have high levels of political participation. In the mass society political participation is unstructured, inconstant, anomic, and variegated. In the participant polity, a high level of popular involvement is organized and structured through political institutions.
3) Modern polity differs from the traditional polity in the scope of the political consciousness and political involvement of its population.The political party is the distinctive organization of modern politics. The function of the party is to organize participation, to aggregate interests, to serve as the link between social forces and the government.
四. Political Modernization: America vs. Europe
1) Political modernization involves the rationalization of authority, the differentiation of structures, and the expansion of political participation.
© 本文版权归作者 陆文馨