#碎碎念#1）科学研究的方向大体有2类：一类是去知道我们不知道的；另一类是去知道我们知道的，两者都有实践价值。知道我们不知道的，开拓了人类知识的新领域；知道我们知道的，把#经验#，以实证的研究方法，转化为#知识#固化下来，得以推广，这本书的内容就是属于后者。如#天道酬勤#，#学而时习之#，亚里士多德的#三段论#等。2）#因材施教#得到批判，在实验中没有充分证据表明不同的教育方法会有明显的教育结果。我想理由主要有：a.主要是Daniel Willingham的教育理念中，先天优势（来自于基因）vs后天增益（来自于#刻意练习#），更加强调的是VAKT的施教方法和#刻意练习#的训练方法; b.#因材施教#的实践成本高，推广意义不大。当然请私塾另当别论。3）每个人生而不同：每个人都有属于自己的Cognitive Ability和Cognitive Style。在沟通中，#Don't Take Study Skills for Granted#，我们认为很简单的，别人不一定能够真正理解，沟通的结果应该是确定Ideal Crossed。4）从信息获取效率的角度讲，会写的不如会催牛逼的（指能够展现画面感的层次哈）；会催牛逼的不如会让人产生#共情效应#的。还是老祖宗说的对啊，琴棋书画都特么要会啊（允悲脸）。5）激励的重点应该是努力的过程，而不是个人先天属性。段子手上来都是说#我家来自农村，家庭条件特别惨#，共情啊！共情！实践产生力量是不？哈哈哈！
1. Why Don’t Students Like School？
a)The mind is not designed for thinking.
b)People are naturally curious, but curiosity is fragile.
2. How Can I Teach Students the Skills They Need When Standardized Test Require
a)Factual knowledge must precede skill. - The ability to analyze and to think critically, require extensive factual knowledge.
3. Why Do Students Remember Everything That’s on Television and Forget Everything I Say?
a)Memory is the residue of thought.
b)Things that create an emotional reaction will be better remembered, but emotion is not necessary for learning.
c)A teacher’s goal should almost always be to get students to think about meaning.
d)How can we get students to remember some- thing? The answer from cognitive science is straightforward: get them to think about what it means. In the previous section I suggested one method—story structure—for getting students to think about meaning.
e)Memorizing meaningless material is commonly called #rote memorization#.
f)#Rote Memorization#, use mnemonics.
4. Why Is It So Hard for Students to Understand Abstract Ideas?
a)We understand new things in the context of things we already know, and most of what we know is concrete.
b)Understanding new ideas is mostly a matter of getting the right old ideas into working memory and then rearranging them—making comparisons we hadn’t made before, or thinking about a feature we had previously ignored.
5. Is Drilling Worth It?
a)It is virtually impossible to become proficient at a mental task without extended practice.
b)Practice does enable further learning, make long memory, improve the knowledge transfer - the similarity compared to the problem solved before.
6. What’s the Secret to Getting Students to Think Like Real Scientists, Mathematicians, and Historians?
a)Experts don’t think in terms of surface features, as novices do; they think in terms of functions, or deep structure.
b)The only path to expertise, as far as everyone knows, is practice.
7. How Should I Adjust My Teaching for Different Types of Learners?
a)Children are more alike than different in terms of how they think and learn.
b)Cognitive Ability vs Cognitive Style: #The definition of cognitive ability is straightforward: it means capacity for or success in certain types of thought. If I say that Sarah has a lot of ability in math, you know I mean she tends to learn new mathematical concepts quickly. In contrast to abilities, cognitive styles are biases or tendencies to think in a particular way, for example to think sequentially (of one thing at a time) or holistically (of all of the parts simultaneously).#
c)VAK: visual-auditory-kinesthetic theory
8. How Can I Help Slow Learners?
a)Children do differ in intelligence, but intelligence can be changed through sustained hard work.
b)Praise Effort, Not Ability
c)Tell Them That Hard Work Pays Off
d)Treat Failure As a Natural Part of Learning
e)Don’t Take Study Skills for Granted
f)Catching Up Is the Long-Term Goal
g)Show Students That You Have Confidence in Them
9. What About My Mind(Giver)?
a)Teaching, like any complex cognitive skill, must be practiced to be improved.
b)You must also practice, and practice means (1) consciously trying to improve, (2) seeking feedback on your teaching, and (3) undertaking activities for the sake of improvement, even if they don’t directly contribute to your job.