UNIT 1 LAYING COMMUNICATION FOUNDATIONS
CHAPTER 1 BUILDING YOUR CAREER SUCCESS WITH COMMUNICATION SKILLS
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS TO YOUR CAREER
Writing Skills and Professionalism Lead to Success
Using This Book to Build Career Communication Skills
Succeeding in the Changing World of Work
Flattened management hierarchies.
More participatory management.
Increased emphasis on self-directed work groups and virtual teams.
Heightened global competition.
Innovative communication technologies.
New work environments.
Focus on information and knowledge as corporate assets.
EXAMINING THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Sender has an idea.
Sender encodes the idea in a message.
Message travels over a channel.
Receiver decodes message.
Feedback travels to sender.
DEVELOPING BETTER LISTENING SKILLS
Barriers to Effective Listening
Tips for Becoming an Active Listener
Control your surroundings.
Establish a receptive mind-set.
Keep an open mind.
Listen for main points.
Capitalize on lag time.
Listen between the lines.
Judge ideas, not appearances.
Hold your fire.
Take selective notes.
IMPROVING YOUR NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
How the Eyes, Face, and Body Send Silent Message
POSTURE AND GUESTURES
How Time, Space, and Territory Send Silent Messages
How Appearance Sends Silent Messages
APPEARANCE OF BUSINESS DOCUMENTS
Tips for Improving Your Nonverbal Skills
Establish and maintain eye contact.
Use posture to show interest.
Improve your decoding skills.
Probe for more information.
Avoid assigning nonverbal meanings out of context.
Associate with people from diverse cultures.
Appreciate the power of appearance.
Observe yourself on videotape.
Enlist friends and family.
UNDERSTANDING HOW CULTURE AFFECTS COMMUNICATION
Comparing Key Culture Values
Controlling Ethnocentrism and Stereotyping
Tips for Minimizing Oral Miscommunication Among Cross-Cultural Audiences
Use simple English.
Speak slowly and enunciate clearly.
Encourage accurate feedback.
Check frequently for comprehension.
Observe eye messages.
Listen without interrupting.
Remember to smile!
Follow up in writing.
Tips for Minimizing Written Miscommunication Among Cross-Cultural Audiences
Consider local styles.
Consider hiring a translator.
Use short sentences and short paragraphs.
Avoid ambiguous wording.
Cite numbers carefully.
CAPITALIZING ON WORKFORCE DIVERSITY
Tips for Effective Communication With Diverse Workplace Audiences
Understand the value of differences.
Don't expect conformity.
Create zero tolerance for bias and stereotypes.
Practice focused, thoughtful, and open-minded listening.
Invite, use, and give feedback.
Make fewer assumptions.
Learn about your cultural self.
Learn about other cultures and identity groups.
Seek common ground.
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
UNIT 2 THE WRITING PROCESS
CHAPTER 2 CREATING BUSINESS MESSAGES
THE BASICS OF BUSINESS WRITING
THE WRITING PROCESS FOR BUSINESS MESSAGES AND ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Scheduling the Writing Process
ANALYZING THE PURPOSE AND THE AUDIENCE
Identifying Your Purpose
Selecting the Best Channel
Switching to Faster Channels
ANTICIPATING THE AUDIENCE
Profiling the Audience
Responding to the Profile
ADAPTING TO THE TASK AND AUDIENCE
Conversational but Professional
TECHNOLOGY IMPROVES YOUR BUSINESS WRITING
Fighting Writer's Block.
Collecting Information Electronically.
Outlining and Organizing Ideas.
Improving Correctness and Precision.
Adding Graphics for Emphasis.
Designing and Producing Professional-looking Documents, Presentation, and Web Pages.
Using Collaborative Software for Team Writing.
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 3 IMPROVING WRITING TECHNIQUES
RESEARCHING TO COLLECT NEEDED INFORMATION
Formal Research Methods
Go to the source.
Informal Research and Idea Generation
Look in the files.
Talk with your boss.
Interview the target audience.
Conduct an informal survey.
Brainstorm for ideas.
ORGANIZING TO SHOW RELATIONSHIPS
The Direct Pattern
Saves the reader's time.
Sets a proper frame of mind.
The Indirect Pattern
Respects the feelings of the audience.
Encourage a fair hearing.
Minimizes a negative reaction.
WRITING EFFECTIVE SENTENCES
Avoiding Sentence Fragments
Avoiding Run-On (Fused) Sentences
Avoiding Comma-Splice Sentences
Controlling Sentence Length
IMPROVING WRITING TECHNIQUES
ACHIEVING EMPHASISI THROUGH MECHANICS
Italics and boldface
ACHIEVING EMPHASIS THROUGH STYLE
Use vivid words.
Label the main idea.
Place the important idea first or last in the sentence.
Place the important idea in a simple sentence or in an independent clause.
DE-EMPHASIZING WHEN NECESSARY
Use general words.
Place the bad news in dependent clause connected to an independent clause with something positive.
Using Active and Passive Voice
Use the active voice for most business writing.
Use the passive voice to emphasize an action or the recipient of the action.
Use the passive voice to de-emphasize negative news.
Use the passive voice to conceal the doer of an action.
AVOIDING ZIGZAG WRITING
AVOIDING CONFUSING MIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
AVOIDING DANGLING AND MISPLACED MODIFIERS
STRIVIGN FOR PARAGRAPH COHERENCE
Repetition of key ideas or key words.
Use of pronouns.
Use of transitional expressions.
Controlling Paragraph Length
COMPOSING THE FIRST DRAFT
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 4 REVISING AND PROOFREDADING BUSINESS MESSAGES
UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESS OF REVISION
Wordy Prepositional Phrases
UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESS OF PROOFREADING
What to Watch for in Proofreading
Names and numbers.
How to Proofread Routine Documents
How to Proofread Complex Documents
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
修改是写作过程中最重要的部分。要想达到清晰和简练，就要找出可以删减的松散结构（如more or less），删除冗长的介词短语（in all probability）、过长的导入语（This is to inform you that）、过时的表达（pursuant to your request），无用的副词（definitely，very）和填充词（There are）。也要注意重复和多余的词（combined together）。只有当接收者理解时，才能使用行话，完全避免俚语和陈词滥调。
UNIT 3 CORRESPONDING AT WORK
CHAPTER 5 E-MAIL AND MEMORANDUMS
APPLYING THE WRITING PROCESS TO PRODUCE EFFECTIVE E-MAIL MESSAGES AND MEMOS
Phrase 1: Analysis, Anticipation, and Adaption
Do I really need to write this e-mail or memo?
Should I send an e-mail or a hard-copy memo?
Why am I writing?
How will the reader react?
How can I save my reader's time?
Phrase 2: Research, Organization, and Composition
Organize your information.
Compose your first draft.
Phrase 3: Revision, Proofreading, and Evaluation
Revise for clarity and conciseness.
Proofread for correctness.
Plan for feedback.
ANALYZING THE STRUCTURE AND FORMAT OF E-MAIL MESSAGES AND MEMOS
Writing the Subject Line
Opening With the Main Idea
Explaining in the Body
USING NUMBERED AND BULLETED LISTS FOR QUICK COMPREHENSION
ADDING HEADINGS FOR VISUAL IMPACT
IMPROVING READABILITY WITH OTHER GRAPHICS TECHNIQUES
Closing With a Purpose
Puting It All Together
Formatting E-Mail Messages
Formatting Hard-Copy Memos
USING E-MAIL SMARTLY AND SAFELY
Consider composing offline.
Get the address right.
Avoid misleading subject lines.
Apply the top-of-screen test.
Content, Tone, and Correctness
Don't send anything you wouldn't want published.
Don't use e-mail to avoid contact.
Care about correctness.
Care about tone.
Resist humor and tongue-in-cheek comments.
Limit any tendency to send blanket copies.
Never send "spam".
Consider using identifying labels.
Use capital letters only for emphasis or for titles.
Don't forward without permission.
Reading and Replying to E-mail
Scan all messages in your inbox before replying to each individually.
Print only when necessary.
Don't automatically return the sender's message.
Revise the subject line if the topic changes.
Never respond when you're angry.
Don't use company computers for personal matter.
Assume that all e-mail is monitored.
Other Smart E-Mail Practices
Use design to improve the readability of longer messages.
Consider cultural differences.
Double-check before hitting the Send button.
WRITING INFORMATION AND PROCEDURE E-MAIL MESSAGES AND MEMOS
Writing Plan for Information and Procedure E-mail Messages and Memos
Subject line: Summarize the content of the message.
Opening: Expand the subjec line by stating the main idea concisely in a full sentence.
Body: Provide background data and explain the main idea. In describing a procedure or giving instructions, use command language (do this, don't do that).
Closing: Request action, summarize the message, or present a closing thought.
WRITING REQUEST AND REPLY E-MAIL MESSAGES AND MEMOS
Writing Plan for Request Messages
Subject line: Summarize the request and note the action desired.
Opening: Begin with the request or a brief statement introducing it.
Body: Provide background, justification, and details. If asking questions, list them in parallel form.
Closing: Request action by a specific date. If possible, provide a reason. Express appreciation, if appropriate.
Replying to Requests
Writing Plan for Replies
Subject line: Summarize the main information from your reply.
Opening: Start directly by responding to the request with a summary statement.
Body: Provide additional information and details in a readable format.
Closing: Add a concluding remark, summary, or offer of further assistance.
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 6 DIRECT LETTERS AND GOODWILL MESSAGES
WRITING EFFECTIVE DIRECT BUSINESS LETTERS
DIRECT REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION AND ACTION
Writing Plan for Direct Requests for Information or Action
Opening: Ask the most important question first or express a polite command.
Body: Explain the request logically and courteously. Ask other questions if necessary.
Closing: Request a specific action with an end date, if appropriate, and show appreciation.
Providing Details in the Body
Closing With Appreciation and an Action Request
Writing Plan for Direct Claims
Opening: Describe clearly the desired action.
Body: Explain the nature of the claim, tell why the claim is justified, and provide details regarding the action requested.
Closing: End courteously with a goodwill statement that summarizes your action request.
Opening With a Clear Statement
Explaining and Justifying in the Body
Concluding With an Action Request
REPLIES TO INFORMATION REQUESTS
Writing Plan for Information Replies
Subject line: Identify previous correspondence and/or refer to the main idea.
Opening: Deliver the most important information first.
Body: Arrange information logically, explain and clarify it, provide additional information if appropriate, and build goodwill.
Closing: End pleasantly.
Summarizing in the Subject Line
Arranging Information Logically
Writing Plan for Adjustment Letters
Subject line: (optional) Identify the previous correspondence and make a general reference to the main topic.
Opening: Grant the request or announce the adjustment immediately. Include sales promotion if appropriate.
Body: Provide details about how you are complying with the request. Try to regain the customers's confidence; include sales promotion if appropriate.
Closing: End positively with a forward-looking thought; express confidence in future business relations. Avoid referring to unpleasantness.
Revealing Good News in the Opening
Explaining Compliance in the Body
Deciding Whether to Apologize
Using Sensitive Language
Showing Confidence in the Closing
LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION
Writing Plan for a Letter of Recommendation
Opening: Identify the applicant, the position, and the reason for writing. State that the message is confidential. Establish your relationship with the applicant. Describe the length of employment or relationship.
Body: Describe job duties. Provide specific examples of the applicant's professional and personal skills and attributes. Compare the applicant with others in his or her field.
Closing: Summarize the significant attributes of the applicant. Offer an overall rating. Draw a conclusion regarding the recommendation.
Identifying the Purpose in the Opening
Providing Evidence in the Body
Evaluating in the Closing
WRITING WINNING GOODWILL MESSAGES
To Express Thanks for a Gift
To Send Thanks for a Favor
To Extend Thanks for Hospitality
To Answer a Congratulatory Note
To Respond to a Pat on the Back
To Express Condolences
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 7 PERSUASIVE MESSAGES
Writing Plan for a Persuasive Request
Opening: Obtain the reader's attention and interest.Describe a problem, state something unexpected, suggest reader benefits, offer praise or compliments, or ask a stimulating question.
Body: Build interest. Explain logically and concisely the purpose of the request. Prove its merit. Use facts, statistics, expert opinion, examples, specific details, and direct and indirect benefits. Reduce resistance. Anticipate objections, offer counterarguments, establish credibility, demonstrate competence, and show the value of your proposal.
Closing: Motivate action. Ask for a particular action. Make the action easy to take. Show courtesy, respect, and gratitude.
Requesting Favors and Action
Persuading Within Organizations
Making Claims and Requesting Adjustments (Complaint Letters)
CRAFTING WINNING SALES LETTERS
Planning Sales Messages
Writing Plan for a Sales Letter
Opening: Gain attention. Offer something valuable; promise a benefit to the reader; aks a question; or provide a quotation, fact, product feature, testimonial, startling statement, or personalized action setting.
Body: Build interest. Describe central selling points and make rational and emotional appeals. Reduce resistance. Use testimonials, money-back guarantees, free samples, performance tests, or other techniques.
Closing: Motivate action. Offer a gift, promise an incentive, limit the offer, set a deadline, or guarantee satisfaction.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Writing Successful Online Sales Messages
Communicate only with those who have given permission!
Craft a catchy subject line.
Keep the main information "above the fold".
Make the message short, conversational, and focused.
Sprinkle testimonials throughout the copy.
Provide a means for opting out.
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 8 NEGATIVE MESSAGES
STRATIGIES FOR DELIVERING BAD NEWS
Establishing Goals in Communicating Bad News
Using the Indirect Pattern to Prepare the Reader
Using the Direct Pattern in Specific Instances
When the receiver may overlook the bad news.
When organization policy suggests directness.
When the receiver prefers directness.
When firmness is necessary.
When the bad news is not damaging.
When the receiver's goodwill is not a issue.
Applying the Writing Process
ANALYSISI, ANTICIPATION, AND ADAPTATION
RESEARCH, ORGANIZATION, AND COMPOSITION
REVISION, PROOFREADING, AND EVALUATION
Preventing Legal Problems
DON'T BE GUILTY OF LIBEL OR DEFAMATION
AVOID CARELESS LANGUAGE
DON'T MISREPRESENT YOUR ORGANAZITION
TECHNIQUES FOR DELIVERING BAD NEWS SENSITIVELY
Buffering the Opening
Presenting the Reasons
BEING CATIOUS IN EXPLAINING
CITING READER OR OTHER BENEFITS IF PLAUSIBLE
EXPLAINING COMPANY POLICY
CHOOSING POSITIVE WORDS
SHOWING THAT THE MATTER WAS TREATED SERIOUSLY AND FAIRLY
Cushioning the Bad News
POSITIONING THE BAD NEWS STRATEGICALLY
USING THE PASSIVE VOICE
ACCENTUATING THE POSITIVE
IMPLYING THE REFUSAL
SUGGESTING A COMPROMISE OR AN ALTERNATIVE
RESALE OR SALES PROMOTION
REFUSING ROUTINE REQUESTS AND CLAIMS
Writing Plan for Refusing Routine Requests and Claims
Buffer: Start with a neutral statement on which both reader and writer can agree, such as a compliment, appreciation, a quick review of the facts, or an apology. Try to include a key idea or word that acts as a transition to the reasons.
Reasons: Present valid reasons for the refusal, avoiding words that create a negative tone. Include resale or sales promotion material if appropriate.
Bad news: Soften the blow by de-emphasizing the bad news, using the passive voice, accentuating the postivie, or implying a refusal. Suggest a compromise, alternative, or substitute if possible. The alternative may be part of the bad news or part of the closing.
Closing: Renew good feelings with a positive statement. Avoid referring to the bad news. Look forward to continued business.
Rejecting Requests for Favors, Money, Information, and Action
SAYING NO TO REQUESTS FROM OUTSIDERS
REFUSING INTERNAL REQUESTS
BREAKING BAD NEWS TO CUSTOMERS
Controlling Damage With Disappointed Customers
BREAKING BAD NEWS TO EMPOYESS
Writing Plan for Announcing Bad News to Employees
Buffer: Open with a neutral or positive statement that transitions to the reasons for the bad news. Consider mentioning the best news, a compliment, appreciation, agreement, or solid facts. Show understanding.
Reasons: Explain the logic behind the bad news. Provide a rational expalnation using positive words and displaying empathy. If possible, mention reader benefits.
Bad news: Position the bad news so that it does not stand out. Be positive but don't sugarcoat the bad news. Use objective language.
Closing: Provide information about an alternative, if one exists. If appropriate, describe what will happen next. Look forward positively.
ETHICS AND THE INDIRECT STRATEGY
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
UNIT 4 REPORTING WORKPLACE DATA
CHAPTER 9 INFORMAL REPORTS
UNDERSTANDING REPORT BASICS
Functions of Reports
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING INFORMAL REPORTS
Determining the Problem and Purpose
SURVEYS, QUESTIONNAIRES, AND INVENTORIES
Developing an Appropriate Writing Style
Using Effective Headings
Use appropriate heading levels.
Strive for parallel construction within levels.
For short reports use first- and second-level headings.
Capitalize and underline carefully.
Keep headings short but clear.
Don't use headings as antecedents for pronouns such as this, that, these, and those.
Include at least one heading per report page.
Present both sides of an issue.
Seperate fact from opinion.
Be sensitive and moderate in your choice of language.
SIX KINDS OF INFORMAL REPORTS
Minutes of meetings.
In the introduction explain why you are writing.
In the findings section organize the facts in a logical sequence.
Speicify in the opening the purpose and nature of the project.
Provide background information if the audience requires filling in.
Describe the work completed.
Explain the work currently in progress, including personal, activities, methods, and locations.
Anticipate problems and possible remedies.
Discuss future activities and provide the expected completion date.
In the introduction indentify the problem or need briefly.
Announce the recommendation, solution, or action concisely and with action verbs.
Explain more fully the benefits of the recommendation or steps to be taken to solve the problem.
Discuss pros, cons, and costs.
Conclude with a summary specifying the recommendation and necessary action.
Make a general reference to the problem, not to your recommendation, in the subject line.
Describe the problem or need your recommendation addresses. Use specific examples, supporting statistics, and authoritative quotes to lend credibility to the seriousness of the problem.
Discuss alternative solutions, beginning with the least likely to succeed.
Present the most promising alternative (your recommendation) last.
Show how the advantages of your recommendation outweigh its disadvantages.
Summarize your recommendation. If appropriate, specify the action it requires.
Ask for authorization to proceed if necessary.
Announce your decision immediately.
Describe the background and problem necessitating the proposal.
Discuss the benefits of the proposal.
Describe any problems that may result.
Calculate the costs associated with the proposal, if appropriate.
Show the time frame necessary for implementing the proposal.
MINUTES OF MEETINGS
Provide the name of the group, as well as the date, time, and place of the meeting.
Identify the names of attendees and absentees, if appropriate.
Describe the disposition of previous minutes.
Record old business, new business, announcements, and reports.
Include the precise wording of motions; record the vote and action taken.
Conclude with the name and signature of the person recoding the minutes.
Identify completely the article, book, or item being summarized (author's name, document title, publicationi title, and date of publication).
Present the goal or purpose of the document being summarized. Why was it written?
Highlight the research methods (if appropriate), findings, conclusioins, and recommendations.
Omit illustrations, examples, and references.
Improve readability by including descriptive (talking) or functional headings.
Include bulleted or enumerated items to provide high "skim" value.
Include your reactions or an overall evaluation of the document if asked to do so.
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 10 PROPOSALS AND FORMAL REPORTS
UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS PROPOSALS
Background, Problem, Purpose
Proposal, Plan, Schedule
PREPARING TO WRITE FORMAL REPORTS
RESEARCHING SECONDARY DATA
PRINT, CD-ROM AND WEB-BASED BIBLIOGRAPHIC INDEXES
The World Wide Web
WEB BROWSERS AND URLS
WEB SEARCH TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Use two or three search tools.
Know your search tool.
Understand case sensitivity.
Use nouns as search words and as many as eight words in a query.
Use quotation marks.
Omit articles and prepositions.
Proofread your search words.
Save the best.
GENERATING PRIMARY DATA
Locate an expert.
Prepare for the interview.
Maitain a professional attitude.
Make your questions objective and friendly.
Watch the time.
Observation and Experimentation
Purposes of Documentation
To strenghten your argument.
To instruct the reader.
To protect yourself against charges of plagiarism.
Learning What to Document
Another person's ideas, opinions, examples, or theory
Any facts, statistics, graphs, and drawings that are not common knowledge
Quotations of another person's actual spoken or written words
Paraphrases of another person's spoken or written words
Developing Good Research Habits
For a book, record the title, author(s), publisher, place of publication, year of publication, and pages cited.
For newspaper, magazine, and journal articles, record the publication title, article title, author(s), issue/volume number, date, and pages cited.
For online newspaper and magazine articles, record the author(s), article title, publication title, date the article was written, the exact URL, and the date you retrieved the article.
For an entire Web site, record the name of the company or organization sponsoring the site, the URL, and the date you retrieved the page.
Developing the Fine Art of Paraphrasing
Read the original material carefully to comprehend its full meaning.
Write your own version without looking at the original.
Do not repeat the grammatical structure of the original, and do not merely replace words with synonyms.
Reread the original to be sure you covered the main points but did not borrow specific language.
Knowing When and How to Quote
Using Citation Formats
ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING DATA
WHERE TO PLACE THE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
HOW TO ORGANIZE THE FINDINGS
Geographical or spatical arrangement.
Topical or functional arrangement.
Outlines and Headings
Matching Graphics and Objectives
Provide a descripitive title at the top of the table.
Arrange items in a logical order (alphabetical, chronological, geographical, highest to lowest), depending on what you want to emphasize.
Provide clear headings for the rows and the columns.
Identify the units in which figures are given (percentages, dollars, unites per worker hour, and so forth) in the table title, in the column or row head, with the first item in a column, or in a note at the bottom.
Use N/A (not available) for missing data.
Make long tables easier to read by shading alternate lines or by leaving a blank line after groups of five.
Place tables as close as possible to the place where they are mentioned in the text.
Keep the length and width of each bar and segment proportional.
Include a total figure in the middle of a bar or at its end if the figure helps the reader and does not clutter the chart.
Start dollar or percentage amounts at zero.
Avoid showing too much information, which produces clutter and confusion.
Place each bar chart as close as possible to the place where it is mentioned in the text.
Begin with a grid divided into squares.
Arrange the time component (usually years) horizontally across the bottom; arrange values for the other variable vertically.
Draw small dots at the intersections to indicate each value at a given year.
Connect the dots and add color if desired.
To prepare a segmented (suface) chart, plot athe first value across the bottom; add the next item to the first figures for every increment; for the third tiem add its value to the total of the first two items. The top line indicates the total of the three values.
Place each line chart as close as possibel to the place where it is mentioned in the text.
Begin at the 12 o'clock position, drawing the largest wedge first.
Include, if possible, the actual percentage or absolute value for each wedge.
Use four to eight segments for best results; if necessary, group small portions into one wedge called "Other".
Distinguish wedges with color, shading, or cross-hatching.
Keep all labels horizontal.
Place each pie chart as close as possibel to the place where it is mentioned in the text.
Ovals: to gesignate the beginning and end of a process
Diamonds: to denote decision points
Rectangles: to represent major activities or steps
Photographs, Maps, and Illustrations
Incorporating Graphics in Reports
Evaluate the audience.
Be accurate and ethical.
Introduce a graph meaningfully.
Choose an appropriate caption or heading style.
Using Your Computer to Produce Charts
PRESENTING THE FINAL REPORT
Prefatory Parts (Preceding the Body of Report)
LETTER OR MEMO OF TRANSMITTAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
Body of Report
Problem or purpose.
Sources and methods.
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Supplementary Parts of Report
WORKS CITED, REFERENCES, OR BIBLIOGRAPHY
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
UNIT 5 DEVELOPING SPEAKING AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS
CHAPTER 11 COMMUNICATING IN PERSON, IN MEETINGS, BY TELEPHONE, AND DIGITALLY
IMPROVING FACE-TO-FACE WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION
Using Your Voice as a Communication Tool
VOLUME AND RATE
Promoting Positive Workplace Relations Through Conversation
USE CORRECT NAMES AND TITLES
CHOOSE APPROPRIATE TOPICS
AVOID NEGATIVE REMARKS
LISTEN TO LEARN
GIVE SINCERE AND SPECIFIC PRAISE
ACT PROFESSIONALLY IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS
Accepting and Responding Professionally to Workplace Criticism
Listen without interrupting.
Determine the speaker's intent.
Acknowledge what you are hearing.
Paraphrase what was said.
Ask for more information if necessary.
Agree-if the comments are accurate.
Disagree respectfully and constructively-if you feel the comments are unfair.
Look for a middle position.
Learn from criticism.
Offering Constructive Criticism on the Job
Mentally outline your conversation.
Generally, use face-to-face communication.
Focus on improvement.
Offer to help.
Avoid broad generalizations.
Discuss the behavior, not the person.
Use the word we rather than you.
Encourage two-way communication.
Avoid anger, sarcasm, and a raised voice.
Keep it private.
PLANNING AND PARTICIPATING IN PRODUCTIVE BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS
Before the Meeting
DETERMINING YOUR PURPOSE
DECIDING HOW AND WHERE TO MEET
ORGANIZING AN AGENDA
Date and place of meeting
Start time and end time
Brief description of each topic, in order of priority, including names of individuals who are responsible for performing some action
Proposed allotment of time of each topic
Any premeeting preparation expected of participants
PREPARING THE MEETING LOCATION AND MATERIALS
During the Meeting
GETTING THE MEETING STARTED
Goal and length of the meeting
Background of topics or problems
Possible solutions and constraints
Ground rules to be followed
MOVING THE MEETING ALONG
DEALING WITH CONFLICT
HANDLING DYSFUNCTIONAL GROUP MEMBERS
Lay down the rules in an opening statement.
Seat potentially dysfunctional members strategically.
Avoid direct eye contact.
Assign dysfunctional members specific tasks.
Ask members to speak in a specific order.
Give praise and encouragement.
Ending the Meeting and Following Up
CONCLUDING THE MEETING
COMPLETING ASSIGNED TASKS
IMPROVING TELEPHONE, CELL PHONE, AND VOICE MAIL SKILLS
Making Telephone Calls Efficiently and Professionally
Plan a mini-agenda.
Use a three-point introduction.
Be brisk if you are rushed.
Be cheerful and accurate.
Be professional and courteous.
Bring it to a close.
Avoid telephone tag.
Leave complete voice mail messages.
Receiving Telephone Calls Professionally
Answer promptly and courteously.
Identify yourself immediately.
Be responsive and helpful.
Be cautious when answering calls for others.
Take messages carefully.
Leave the line respectfully.
Explain what you're doing when transferring calls.
Using Cell Phones for Business
Making the Best Use of Voice Mail
ON THE RECEIVER'S END
Don't oversue voice mail.
Set the number of rings appropriately.
Prepare a professional, concise, friendly greeting.
Test your message.
Change your message.
Respond to messages promptly.
Plan for vacations and other extended absences.
ON THE CALLER'S END
Be prepared to leave a message.
Leave a concise, thorough message.
Use a professional and courteous tone.
Speak slowly and articulate.
Be careful with confidential information.
Don't make assumptions.
OTHER DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TOOLS IN THE WORKPLACE
INSTANT MESSAGE (IM)
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 12 MAKING EFFECTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL ORAL PRESENTATIONS
GETTING READY FOR AN ORAL PRESENTATION
Knowing Your Purpose
Understanding Your Audience
Who is my audience and how will this topic appeal to them?
How can I relate this information to their needs?
How can I gain credibility and earn respect so that they accept my message?
What would be most effective in making my point? Facts? Statistics? Personal experiences? Expert opinion? Humor? Cartoons? Graphic illustrations? Demonstrations? Case histories? Analogies?
What measures must I take to ensure that this audience remembers my main points?
ORGANIZING CONTENT FOR A POWERFUL IMPACT
Capturing Attention in the Introduction
Capture listeners' attention and get them involved.
Identify yourself and establish your credibility.
Preview your main points.
Organizing the Body
Best case/worst case.
Summarizing in the Conclusion
Summarize the main themes of the presentation.
Provide a final, action-oriented focus that tells your listeners how they can use the information you presented or what you want them to do.
Include a statement that allows you to depart the podium gracefully and leaves a lasting impression.
HOW THE BEST SPEAKERS BUILD AUDIENCE RAPPORT
Worst- and best-case scenarios.
Animate your body.
Punctuate your words.
Use appropriate eye contact.
Get out from behind the podium.
Vary your facial expression.
PLANNING VISUAL AIDS
Types of Visual Aids
DESIGNING AN IMPRESSIVE MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION
Creating Your Presentation
Building Bullet Points
Adding Multimedia and Other Effects
Producing Speaker's Notes and Handouts
Moving Your Presentation to the Web
Avoiding Being Upstaged by Your Slides
POLISHING YOUR DELIVERY AND FOLLOWING UP
Before Your Presentation
Request a lectern.
Check the room.
Greet members of the audience.
Practice stress reduction.
During Your Presentation
Begin with a pause.
Present your first sentence from memory.
Maintain eye contact.
Control your voice and vocabulary.
Put the breaks on.
Use visual aids effectively.
Summarize your main points.
After Your Presentation
Reinforce your main points.
Avoide Yes, but answers. (Yes, and ...)
End with a summary and appreciation.
ADAPTING TO INTERNATIONAL AND CROSS-CULTRUAL AUDIENCES
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
UNIT 6 COMMUNICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT
CHAPTER 13 THE JOB SEARCH, RESUMES, AND COVER LATTERS
PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT
Identifying Your Interests
Do you enjoy working with people, data, or things?
Would you like to work for someone else or be your own boss?
How important are salary, benefits, technology support, and job stability?
How important are working environment, colleagues, and job stimulation?
Would you rather work for a large or a small company?
Must you work in a specific city, geographical area, or climate?
Are you looking for security, travel opportunities, money, power, or prestige?
How would you describe the perfect job, boss, and coworkers?
Evaluating Your Qualifications
What technology skills can you offer?
What other skills have you acquired in school, on the job, or through activities?
Do you work well with people? Do you enjoy teamwork?
Are you a leader, self-starter, or manager?
Do you speak, write, or understand another language?
Do you learn quick? Are you creative? Do you take initiative? Are you flexible?
Do you communicate well in speech and in writing?
Recognizing the Changing Nature of Jobs
Choosing a Career Path
Visit your campus career center.
Search the Web.
Use your library.
Take a summer job, intership, or part-time position in your field.
Interview someone in your chosen field.
Monitor the classified ads.
Join professional organizations in your field.
Join student clubs.
Searching for a Job Electronically
USING THE BIG JOB BOARDS
College Recruiter (http://www.CollegeRecruiter.com)
Yahoo! Hot Jobs (http://hotjobs.yahoo.com)
BEYOND THE BIG JOB BOARDS
Corporate Web sites.
Association Web sites.
Local employment Web sites.
Niche Web sites.
Search engine Google.
Searching for a Job Using Traditional Techniques
Check classified ads in local and national newspaper.
Check announcements in publications of professional organizations.
Contact companies in which you're interested, even if you know of no current opening.
Sign up for campus interviews with visiting company representatives.
Ask for advice from your professors.
Develop your own network of contacts.
THE PERSUASIVE RESUME
Choosing a Resume Style
Deciding on Length
Arranging the Parts
SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS
WORK EXPERIENCE OR EMPOYMENT HISTORY
Employer's name, city, and state
Dates of employment
Most important job title
Significant duties, activities, accomplishments, and promotions
CAPABILITIES AND SKILLS
AWARDS, HONORS, AND ACTIVITIES
OPTIMIZING YOUR RESUME FOR TODAY'S TECHNOLOGIES
Designing a Traditional Print-Based Resume
Preparing a Scannable Resume
TIPS FOR MAXIMIZING SCANNABILITY
Use 10- to 14-point type.
Avoid unusual typefaces, underlining, and italics.
Be sure that your name is the first line on the page.
List each phone number on its own line.
Provide white space.
Avoid double columns.
Use smooth white paper, black ink, and quality printing.
Don't fold or staple your resume.
TIPS FOR MAXIMIZING "HITS"
Focus on specific keywords.
Incorporate words from the advertisement or job description.
Use typical headings.
Use accurate names.
Be careful of abbreviations.
Describe interpersonal traits and attitudes.
Use more than one page if necessary.
Preparing an Embedded Resume for E-Mailing
Follow all the tips for a scannable resume.
Consider reformatting with shorter lines.
Think about using keyboard charaters to enhance format.
Move all text to the left.
Save your resume in plain text (.txt) or rich text format (.rtf).
Test your resume before sending it to an employer.
Creating an E-Portfolio
APPLYING THE FINAL TOUCHES TO YOUR RESUME
Being Honest and Ethical
Inflated education, grades, or honors.
Enhanced job titles.
Altered employment dates.
Polishing Your Resume
Proofreading Your Resume
Sending Your Resume
THE PERSUASIVE COVER LETTER
Gaining Attention in the Opening
OPEING FOR SOLICITED JOBS
Refer to the name of an employee in the company.
Refer to the source of your information precisely.
Refer to the job title and describe how your qualifications fit the requirements.
OPENING FOR UNSOLICITED JOBS
Demonstrate interest in and knowlege of the reader's business.
Show how your special talents and background will benefit the company.
Selling Your Strengths in the Body
Motivating Action in the Closing
Sending Your Cover Letter by E-Mail or by Fax
Final Tips for Successful Cover Letters
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD
CHAPTER 14 EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWING AND FOLLOW-UP MESSAGES
TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWS
BEFORE THE INTERVIEW
Ensuring Professional Phone Contact
Invest a good answering machine or voice mail service.
Tell those who might answer your phone at home about your job search.
If you have children, prevent them from answering the phone during your job search.
If you've put your cell phone number on your resume, don't answer your cell phone unless you're in a good location to carry on a conversation with an employer.
Use voice mail to screen calls.
Make the First Conversation Impressive
Keep a list near the telephone of positions for which you have applied.
Treat any call from an employer just like an interview.
If caught off guard by the call, ask whether you can call back in a few minutes.
Have a copy of your resume available so that you can answer any questions that come up.
Be prepared for a screening interview.
Take good notes during the phone conversation.
Ask the employer to send you a copy of the job description and other company informatioin, which you can use to prepare for the interview.
Before you hang up, reconfirm the date and time of your interview.
Researching the Target Company
Preparing and Practicing
Prepare success stories.
Practice answers to possible questions.
Expect to explain problem areas on your resume.
Take a trial trip.
Decide how you will dress professionally.
Gather what you will bring with you.
ON THE DAY OF YOUR INTERVIEW
Traveling to and Arriving at Your Interview
Sending Positive Nonverbal Messages
Control your body movements.
Exhibit good posture.
Use appropriate eye contact.
Use gestures effectively.
Smile enough to convey a positive attitude.
Turn off your cell phone.
Don't chew gum.
Sound enthusiastic and interested - but sincere.
Avoid "empty" words.
Know that you're not alone.
Remember that it's a two-way street.
DURING THE INTERVIEW
QUESTIONS TO GET ACQUAINTED
1. Tell me about yourself.
Experts agree that you must keep this answer short (one to two minutes tops) but on target. Use this chance to promote yourself. Stick to educational, professional, or business-related strengths; avoid personal or humorous references. Be ready with at least three success stories illustrating characteristics important to this job. Demonstrate responsibility you have been given; describe how you contributed as a team player. Try practicing this formula: I have completed ___ degree with a major in ___. Recently I worked for ___ as a ___. Before that I worked for ___ as a ___. My strengths are ___ (interpersonal) and ___ (technical). Try rehearsing your response in 30-second segments devoted to your education, your work experience, and you qualities/skills.
2. What are your greatest strengths?
Stress your strengths that are related to the position, such as I am well organized, thorough, and attentive to detail. Tell success stories and give examples that illustrate these qualities: My supervisor says that my research is exceptionally thorough. For example, I recently worked on a research project in which I ....
3. Do you prefer to work by yourself or with others? Why?
This question can be tricky. Provide a middle-of-the-road answer that not only suggests your interpersonal qualities but also reflects an ability to make independent decisions and work without supervision.
4. What was your major in college, and why did you choose it?
5. What are some things you do in your spare time? Hobbies? Sports?
QUESTIONS TO GAUGE YOUR INTEREST
1. Why do you want to work for (name of company)?
Questions like this illustrate why you must research an organization thoroughly before the interview. The answer to this question must prove that you understand the company and its culture. This is the perfect place to bring up the company reseach you did before the interview. Show what you know about the company, and discuss why your desire to become a part of this organization. Describe your desire to work for this organization not only from your perspective but also from its point of view. What do you have to offer?
2. Why are you interested in this position?
3. What do you know about our company?
4. Why do you want to work in the ___ industry?
5. What interests you about our products (services)?
QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR EXPERIENCE AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
1. Why should we hire you when we have applicants with more experience or better credentials?
In answering this question, remember that employers often hire people who present themselves well instead of others with better redentials. Emphasize your persoanl strengths that could be an advantage with this employer. Are you a hard worker? How can you demonstrate it? Have you had recent training? Some people have had more years of experience but actually have less knowledge because they have done the same thing over and over. Stress your experience using the latest methods and equipment. Be sure to mention your computer training and use of the Internet and Web. Tell success stories. Emphasize that you are open to new ideas and learn quickly. Above all, show that you're confident in your abilities.
2. Describe the most rewarding experience of your career so far.
3. How do your education and professional experiences prepare you for this position?
4. What were your major accomplishments in each of your past jobs?
5. What was a typical workday like?
6. What job functions did you enjoy most? Least? Why?
7. Tell me about your computer skills.
8. Who was the toughest boss you ever worked for and why?
9. What were your major achievements in college?
10. Why did you leave your last position? Or, why are you leaving your current position?
QUESTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE
1. Where do you expect to be five (or ten) years from now?
Formulate a realistic plan with respect to your present age and situation. The important thing is to be prepared for this question. It's a sure kiss of death to respond that you'd like to have the interviewer's job! Instead, show an interest in the current job and in making a contribution to the organization. Talk about the levels or responsibility you'd like to achieve. One employment counselor suggests showing ambition but not committing to a specific job title. Suggest that you hope to have learned enough to have progressed to a position where you will continue to grow. Keep your answer focused on educational and professional goals, not personal goals.
2. If you got this position, what would you do to be sure you fit in?
3. This is a large (or small) organization. Do you think you'd like that environment?
4. Do you plan to continue your education?
5. What do you predict for the future of the ___ industry?
6. How do you think you can contribute to this company?
7. What would you most like to accomplish if you get this position?
8. How do you keep current with what is happening in your profession?
1. What is your greatest weakness?
It's amazing how many candidates knock themselves out of the competition by answering this question poorly. Actually, you have many choices. You can present a strength as a weakness (Some people complain that I'm a workaholic or too attentive to details). You can mention a corrected weakness (I found that I really needed to learn about conducting Web research, so I took a course). You could cite an unrelated skill (I really need to brush up on my Spanish). You can cite a learning objective (One of my long-term goals is to learn more about internatioanl management. Does your compnay have plans to expand overseas?). Another possibility is to reaffierm your qualifications (I have no weakness that affect my ability to do this job).
2. What type of people do you have no patience for?
Avoid letting yourself fall into the trap of sounding overly critical. One possible response is, I've always gotten along well with others. But I confess that I can be irritated by complainers who don't accept responsibility.
3. If you could live your life over, what would you change and why?
4. How would your former (or current) supervisor describe you as an employee?
5. What do you want the most from your job? Money? Security? Power?
6. What is your grade point average, and does it accurately reflect your abilities?
7. Have you ever used drugs?
8. Who in your life has influenced you the most and why?
9. What are you reading right now?
10. Describe your ideal work environment.
QUESTIONS ABOUT MONEY
1. How much money are you looking for?
One way to handle salary questions is to ask politely to defer the discussion until it's clear that a job will be offered to you (I'm sure when the time comes, we'll be able to work out a fair compensation package. Right now, I'd rather focus on whether we have a match). Another possible response is to reply candidly that you can't know what to ask until you know more about the position and the company. If you continue to be pressed for a dollar figure, give a salary rangewith an annual dollar amount. Be sure to do research before the interview so that you know what similar jobs are paying in your geopgraphic region. For example, check a Web site such as http://www.salary.com.
2. How much are you presently earning?
3. How much do you think you're worth?
4. How much money do you expect to earn within the next ten years?
5. Are you willing to take a pay cut from your current (or previous) job?
6. Would you take a lesser amount during a probationary period?
1. You receive a call from an irate customer who complains about the service she received last night at your restaurant. She is demanding her money back. How would you handle the situation?
2. If you were aware that a coworker was falsifying data, what would you do?
3. Your supervisor has just told you that she is dissatisfied with your work, but you think it's acceptable. How would you resolve the conflict?
4. Your supervisor has told you to do something a certain way, and you know that way is wrong and that there's a far better way to complete the task. What would you do?
5. A work colleague has told you in confidence that she suspects another colleague of stealing. What would your actions be?
6. You have noticed that communication between upper management and first-level employees is eroding. How would you solve this problem?
1. Tell me about a time you solved a difficult problem.
Tell a concise story explaining the situation or task, what you did, and the result. For example, When I was at Ace Products, we continually had a problem of excessive back orders. After analyzing the situation, I discovered that orders went through many unnecessary steps. I sugguested that we eliminate much paperwork. As a result, we reduced back orders by 30 percent. Go on to emphasize what you learned and how you can apply that learning to this job. Practice your success stories in advance so that you will be ready.
2. Describe a situation in which you were able to use persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way.
The recruiter is interested in your leadership and teamwork skills. You might respond, I've learned to appreciate the fact that the way you present an idea is just as important as the idea itself. When trying to influence people, I put myself in their shoes and find some way to frame my idea from their perspective. I remember when I ....
3. Describe a time when you had to analyze information and make a recommendation.
4. Describe a time that you worked successfully as part of a team.
5. Tell me about a time you dealt with confidentical information.
6. Give me an example of a time when you were under stress to meet a deadline.
7. Tell me about a time when you had to go above and beyond the call of duty in order to get a job done.
8. Tell me about a time you were able to successfully deal with another person even when that individual may not have personality liked you (or vice versa).
9. Give me an example of when you showed initiative and took the lead.
10. Tell me about a recent situation in which you had to deal with an upset customer or coworker.
BRAIN TEASER QUESTIONS
1. If you had to remove 1 of the 50 U.S. states, what would it be and why?
This question has no right answer; it measures your ability to defend an answer.
2. A businessman devises a business plan for buying and selling coconuts. He calculates that by buying coconuts for $5 a dozen and selling them for $3 a dozen, in less than a year he will be a millionaire. His business plan and calculations are accurate. How is this possible?
This question tests the ability to put aside assumptions. We assume he starts with no money, but this can only be possible if he started with more money. The answer is that the businessman started off with more than a million dollars.
3. If you had an ifinite supply of water and a 5-quart and 3-quart pail, how would you measure exactly 4 quarts?
4. A rope ladder hangs over the side of a ship. The rungs are 1 foot apart, and the ladder is 12 feet long. The tide is rising 4 inches an hour. How long will it take before the first four rungs of the ladder are under water?
ILLEGAL AND INAPPROPRIATE QUESTIONS
1. What is your marital status? Are you married? Do you live with anyone? Do you have a boyfriend (or girlfriend)? (However, employers can ask your marital status after hiring for tax and insurance forms.)
Could you tell me how my marital status relates to the responsibilities of this position?
I prefer to keep my personal and professional lives seperate.
2. Do you have any disabilities? Have you had any recent illnesses? (But it is legal to ask if the person can perform specific job duties, such as Can you carry a 50-pound sack up a 10-foot ladder five times daily?)
3. I notice you have an accent. Where are you from? What is the origin of your last name? What is your native language? (However, it's legal to ask what languages you speak fluently if language ability is related to the job.)
4. Have you ever filed a worker's compensation claim or been injured on the job?
5. Have you ever had a drinking problem or been addicted to drugs? (But it is legal to ask if a person uses illegal drugs.)
6. Have you ever been arrested? (But it is legal to ask Have you ever been convicted of ___ ? when the crime is related to the job.)
7. How old are you? What is your date of birth? When did you graduate from high school? (But it is legal to ask Are you 16 years (or 18 years or 21 years) old or older? depending on the age requirements for the position.)
8. Of what country are you a citizen? Where were you born? (But it is legal to ask Are you a citizen of the United States? or Can you legally work in the United States?)
9. What is your maiden name? (But it is legal to ask What is your full name? or Have you worked under another name?)
10. Do you have children? Do you plan to have children? Do you have adequate child-care arrangements? (However, employers can ask for dependent information for tax and insurance purposes after you're hired.)
11. How much do you weigh? How tall are you? (However, employers can ask you about your height and weight if minimum standards are necessary to safely perform a job.)
CLOSING THE INTERVIEW
Asking Your Own Questions
1. What will my duties be (if not already discussed)?
2. Tell me what it's like working here in terms of the people, management practices, workloads, expected performance, and rewards.
3. What training programs are available from this organization? What specific training will be given for this position?
4. Who would be my immediate supervisor?
5. What is the organizational structure, and where does this position fit in?
6. Is travel required in this position?
7. How is job performance evaluated?
8. Assuming my work is excellent, where do you see me in five years?
9. How long do employees generally stay with this organization?
10. What are the major challenges for a person in this position?
11. What do you see in the future of this organization?
12. What do you like best about working for this organization?
13. Can I have a tour of the facilities?
14. When do you expect to make a decision?
AFTER THE INTERVIEW
Thanking Your Interviewer
Contacting Your References
OTHER EMPLOYMENT LETTERS AND DOCUMENTS
Carry a card summarizing vital statistics not included on your resume.
Look over all the questions before starting.
Fill out the form neatly, using blue or black ink.
Answer all questions honestly.
Use accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
If asked for the position desired, give a specific job title or type of position.
Be prepared for a salary question.
Be prepared to explain the reasons for leaving previous positions.
Application or Resume Follow-Up Letter
Rejection Follow-Up Letter
Job Acceptance and Rejection Letters
SUMMING UP AND LOOKING FORWARD