➤自我防御机制(ego defence mechanism)
An unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli
(1) pathological defence
Primitive level of self defence, permitting one to rearrange external experiences to eliminate the need to cope with reality; normally found in dreams and throughout childhood
1.1 Conversion: expression of intrapsy...
➤自我防御机制(ego defence mechanism)An unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli(1) pathological defencePrimitive level of self defence, permitting one to rearrange external experiences to eliminate the need to cope with reality; normally found in dreams and throughout childhood1.1 Conversion: expression of intrapsychic conflict as physical symptoms, e.g. blindness, deafness, paralysis; sometimes called hysteria1.2 Delusional projection: delusions about external reality, usually of a persecutory nature1.3 Denial: refusal to accept threatening external reality1.4 Distortion: gross reshaping of external reality1.5 Extreme projection: blatant denial of an undesirable quality/deficiency and perceiving it as a quality of/deficiency in other(s)1.6 Splitting: Segregating experiences into all-goo and all-bad catergories; can combined with “projecting”(2) immature defenceOften present in adults, though overuse can be socially undesirable, in that they are immature and out of touch with reality2.1 Acting out: direct expression of unconscious wishes or impulses in action without awareness of the driving emotion2.2 Fantasy: tendency to retreat into fantasy to resolve inner and outer conflicts2.3 Idealisation: tending to perceive other as having more desirable qualities than actual2.4 Introjection: internalization of desirable attributes found on others2.5 Passive aggression: indirectly/passively expressed aggression, e.g. procrastination2.6 投影性认同Projective identification: influential identification so strong that invokes in the object of projection the projected quality/figure/thought/feeling/behaviour2.7 Projection: a primitive form of paranoia, attributing unacknowledged unwanted thoughts/emotions to another, e.g. prejudice, jealousy, hypervigilance, “injustice collecting”2.8 Somatisation: (similar to pathological Conversion), transformation of uncomfortable feelings towards others into ones toward oneself, e.g. pain, illness2.9 Wishful thinking: making decisions imagining only the pleasing(3) neurotic defenceCommon in adults; have short-term advantages but cause long-term problems3.1 Displacement: Shifting/redirecting emotions and impulses to a safer/more acceptable target, e.g. yelling at a child than an adult3.2 Dissociation: separation or postponement of a feeling to avoid distress3.3 抑郁疑病症Hypochondriasis: excessive preoccupation/worry about having a serious illness3.4 Intellectualisation: isolation, concentrating on the intellectual component of a situation to avoid emotions3.5 Rationalisation: convincing oneself by reasoning and making excuses to justify an act3.6 Reaction formation: behave/believe the opposite of desire to avoid dangers3.7 Regression: temporary reversion of the ego to an earlier stage of development, e.g. whining instead of speaking with an appropriate level of maturity3.8 Repression: Repelling desires3.9 Undoing: acting out the reverse of the unacceptable trying to undo, including symbolically nullifying an unacceptable or guilt provoking idea by confession or atonement3.10 Upward/Downward Social Comparisons: a means of self-evaluation3.11 Withdrawal: a more severe form of defence, entailing removing oneself from events, stimuli, and interactions under the threat of being reminded of painful thoughts and feelings(4) mature defenceEmotionally healthy and effective means to enhace pleasure and feelings of control that optimize success in human society and relationships; users are usually considered virtuous4.1 Acceptance: assent to the reality, recognisation without attempting to change, protest or exit4.2 Altruism: constructive service to others that brings pleasure and personal satisfaction4.3 Anticipation: realistic planning for future discomfort4.4 Courage: mental ability and willingness to take on challenges, e.g. confront conflicts/danger/uncertainty/obstacles/vicissitudes/intimidation; physical courage often extends lives, while moral courage preserves the ideals of justice and fairness4.5 Emotional Self-Regulation4.6 Emotional Self-Sufficiency: Independency of external validation(approval/disapproval)4.7 Forgiveness: Cessation of resentment, indignation or anger, and ceasing to demand retribution or restitution4.8 Gratitude: Feeling of thankfulness or appreciation; likely to bring higher levels of happiness and lower levels of depression and stress4.9 Humility: Humble self-opinion, which is intelligent self-respect4.10 Humour: skirting around the unpleasant by witticism, e.g. 自贬/自嘲self-deprecation4.11 Identification: unconscious modeling upon others4.12 Mercy: compassionate behaviour when in power4.13 Mindfulness: adopting a particular orientation towards the present moment4.14 Moderation: eliminating extremes and staying within reasonable limits4.15 Patience4.16 Respect: willingness to show consideration or appreciation4.17 Sublimation: transformation of unwanted emotions/impulses/instincts into healthy/constructive actions or emotions4.18 Suppression: delaying paying attention to violent emotions and making it possible later to access whilst accepting them4.19 Tolerance(5) narcissistic defenceProcesses whereby the idealized aspects of the self are preserved and its limitations denied, tend to be rigid and totalistic; often driven by feelings of shame and guilt5.1 unconscious repression5.2 conscious denial5.3 distortion (including exaggeration and minimisation) and lies5.4 psychological projection (e.g. blaming others)5.5 enlisting codependent friends to support one ' s own distorted view ◆(Behavioral Therapy)Theory: behaviourism(1) All behaviours are learnt/acquired.(2) Reinforcement, including rewards and punishments, is effective in behaviour modificationGoal: build new behaviour (new response mechanisms to stimuli) by controlling environment and implementing reinforcementMethods:Behaviour managementBehaviour modificationContingency managementCovert conditioningExposure and response preventionFloodingHabit reversal trainingMatching lawModelingObservational learningOperant conditioningRespondent conditioning系统脱敏疗法(systematic desensitisation)松弛疗法(relaxation therapy)模仿学习自勇训练厌恶疗法泛滥疗法◆情感矫正体验(corrective emotional experience)Provoking recurrence of past events with in-time comfort to repair the traumatic influence[TBC]
◆交互分析疗法(Transactional Analysis Therapy)
1. Three ego states
(1) Parent Self: authoritative, unconscious mimicking of parents.
(2) Adult Self: neither authoritative nor emotional, a state of the ego which is most like an artificially intelligent system processing information and making predictions about major emotions that could affect its operation.
Learning to strengthen the A...
◆交互分析疗法(Transactional Analysis Therapy)Theory:1. Three ego states(1) Parent Self: authoritative, unconscious mimicking of parents.(2) Adult Self: neither authoritative nor emotional, a state of the ego which is most like an artificially intelligent system processing information and making predictions about major emotions that could affect its operation.Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality.(3) Child Self: emotional, displaying instinctive desires and impulses similar to that in childhood.2. Care and approval build confidence and avert ego conflict.3. Positive interaction of egos create positive life scriptGoal: facilitate becoming 'integrated person'Method: Listen, resolve ego conflict and establish adult-like perspective