1.5.1 Commands, Arguments, and Options
Shell command lines consist of one or more words, which are separated on a command line by blanks or TABs. The first word on the line is the command. The rest (if any) are arguments (also called parameters) to the command, which are names of things on which the command will act.
For example, the command line lp myfile consists of the command lp (print a file) and the single argument myfile. lp treats myfile as the name of a file to print. Arguments are often names of files, but not necessarily: in the command line mail cam, the mail program treats cam as the username to which a message will be sent.
An option is a special type of argument that gives the command specific information on what it is supposed to do. Options usually consist of a dash followed by a letter; we say "usually" because this is a convention rather than a hard-and-fast rule. The command lp -h myfile contains the option -h, which tells lp not to print the "banner page" before it prints the file.
Sometimes options take their own arguments. For example, lp -d lp1 -h myfile has two options and one argument. The first option is -d lp1, which means "Send the output to the printer (destination) called lp1." The second option and argument are the same as in the previous example.
波浪符~：试试这两个命令ls ~leal和ls ~/leal（假定用户名为leal，且在~目录下有一个名为leal的子目录）。cd ~ = cd 回到你的home。cd - 回到上一次的工作目录。