出版社: Belknap Press
副标题: Exploring the Equations of Life
出版年: 2006929
页数: 384
定价: USD 54.00
装帧: Hardcover
ISBN: 9780674023383
内容简介 · · · · · ·
At a time of unprecedented expansion in the life sciences, evolution is the one theory that transcends all of biology. Any observation of a living system must ultimately be interpreted in the context of its evolution. Evolutionary change is the consequence of mutation and natural selection, which are two concepts that can be described by mathematical equations.Evolutionary Dyna...
At a time of unprecedented expansion in the life sciences, evolution is the one theory that transcends all of biology. Any observation of a living system must ultimately be interpreted in the context of its evolution. Evolutionary change is the consequence of mutation and natural selection, which are two concepts that can be described by mathematical equations.Evolutionary Dynamics is concerned with these equations of life. In this book, Martin Nowak draws on the languages of biology and mathematics to outline the mathematical principles according to which life evolves. His work introduces readers to the powerful yet simple laws that govern the evolution of living systems, no matter how complicated they might seem.
Evolution has become a mathematical theory, Nowak suggests, and any idea of an evolutionary process or mechanism should be studied in the context of the mathematical equations of evolutionary dynamics. His book presents a range of analytical tools that can be used to this end: fitness landscapes, mutation matrices, genomic sequence space, random drift, quasispecies, replicators, the Prisoner's Dilemma, games in finite and infinite populations, evolutionary graph theory, games on grids, evolutionary kaleidoscopes, fractals, and spatial chaos. Nowak then shows how evolutionary dynamics applies to critical realworld problems, including the progression of viral diseases such as AIDS, the virulence of infectious agents, the unpredictable mutations that lead to cancer, the evolution of altruism, and even the evolution of human language. His book makes a clear and compelling case for understanding every living systemand everything that arises as a consequence of living systemsin terms of evolutionary dynamics.
作者简介 · · · · · ·
Martin Nowak is Professor of Biology and of Mathematics at Harvard University. He is Director of the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics.
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Chapter 13 is devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of the one trait that is truly our own invention and that is arguably the one interesting thing that has happened in the last six hundred million years on earth. Bacteria invented all the biochemistry of life. Eukaryotes invented some advanced genetics and how to build complicated multicellular plants and animals. Humans will be remembered for ...
20180630 02:59
Chapter 13 is devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of the one trait that is truly our own invention and that is arguably the one interesting thing that has happened in the last six hundred million years on earth. Bacteria invented all the biochemistry of life. Eukaryotes invented some advanced genetics and how to build complicated multicellular plants and animals. Humans will be remembered for language.
回应 20180630 02:59 
...the British mathematician G. H. Hardy, who was proud nenver to have done anything useful (= applied) in his life, only to have his name forever associated with a highly useful and very applied concept in population genetics. 
20180630 00:45

The word "transcription" and "translation" were invented by the mathematician John von Neumann when he calculated how to build a selfreproducing machine. He came up with an architecture equivalent to the orginazation of cells some decades before molecular biology had been invented.  平实的叙述，没有一个惊叹号。赞赏之情溢于言表。
20180630 00:41
The word "transcription" and "translation" were invented by the mathematician John von Neumann when he calculated how to build a selfreproducing machine. He came up with an architecture equivalent to the orginazation of cells some decades before molecular biology had been invented.

平实的叙述，没有一个惊叹号。赞赏之情溢于言表。
回应 20180630 00:41 
mmm (这世界上有种爱情叫做一叶障目)
The main ingredients of evolutionary dynamics are reproduction, mutation, selection, random drift, and spatial movement. Always keep in mind that the population is the fundamental basis of any evolution. Individuals, genes, or ideas can change over time, but only populations evolve. what is the replicator equation? it seems to be key equation in the whole theory. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chap...20121218 11:50
what is the replicator equation? it seems to be key equation in the whole theory.Chapter 2.Chapter 3.Chapter 4:The main ingredients of evolutionary dynamics are reproduction, mutation, selection, random drift, and spatial movement. Always keep in mind that the population is the fundamental basis of any evolution. Individuals, genes, or ideas can change over time, but only populations evolve.
evolutionary game dynamics arise whenever the fitness of an individual is not constant but depends on the relative abundance(=frequency) of others in the population.
回应 20121218 11:50

mmm (这世界上有种爱情叫做一叶障目)
The main ingredients of evolutionary dynamics are reproduction, mutation, selection, random drift, and spatial movement. Always keep in mind that the population is the fundamental basis of any evolution. Individuals, genes, or ideas can change over time, but only populations evolve. what is the replicator equation? it seems to be key equation in the whole theory. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chap...20121218 11:50
what is the replicator equation? it seems to be key equation in the whole theory.Chapter 2.Chapter 3.Chapter 4:The main ingredients of evolutionary dynamics are reproduction, mutation, selection, random drift, and spatial movement. Always keep in mind that the population is the fundamental basis of any evolution. Individuals, genes, or ideas can change over time, but only populations evolve.
evolutionary game dynamics arise whenever the fitness of an individual is not constant but depends on the relative abundance(=frequency) of others in the population.
回应 20121218 11:50 
Chapter 13 is devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of the one trait that is truly our own invention and that is arguably the one interesting thing that has happened in the last six hundred million years on earth. Bacteria invented all the biochemistry of life. Eukaryotes invented some advanced genetics and how to build complicated multicellular plants and animals. Humans will be remembered for ...
20180630 02:59
Chapter 13 is devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of the one trait that is truly our own invention and that is arguably the one interesting thing that has happened in the last six hundred million years on earth. Bacteria invented all the biochemistry of life. Eukaryotes invented some advanced genetics and how to build complicated multicellular plants and animals. Humans will be remembered for language.
回应 20180630 02:59 
...the British mathematician G. H. Hardy, who was proud nenver to have done anything useful (= applied) in his life, only to have his name forever associated with a highly useful and very applied concept in population genetics. 
20180630 00:45

Evolutionary Dynamics 01 What Is Evolution Topic: forces shaping population dynamics • population growth • limited environmental resource and interspecies competition • species winning based on fitness • sublinear growth rate leads to coexistence • superlinear growth rate leads to winning of species which first occupies ecological niches • mutation leads to coexistence...
20110206 04:12
Evolutionary Dynamics01 What Is EvolutionTopic: forces shaping population dynamics• population growth• limited environmental resource and interspecies competition• species winning based on fitness• sublinear growth rate leads to coexistence• superlinear growth rate leads to winning of species which first occupies ecological niches• mutation leads to coexistence• random mating does not affect allele frequencyThis chapter summarizes result of early mathematical models of population biology.• Population growthDifference equationxt = x0 2tDifferential equationx(t) = x0 ertEven under the same scheme of 20minute time step, the two equations produce different numerical result. That is because of the underlying assumptions adopted here. The difference equation assumes synchronized cell division, while the differential equation assumes asynchronized cell division, as cell division rate follows a probabilistic exponential distribution. Introduce cell deathdx/dt = (r  d) xr/d is taken as basic reproductive ratio. This parameter determines future of the population, i.e. infinite or zero.• Limited environmental resourceLogistic differential equationdx/dt = r x (1  x/K)Stable attractor at x*=K.Logistic difference equationxt+1 = a xt (1xt)analog as a := 1+r, x rescaled to represent fractionThis equation produces deterministic chaos for 3.6786<a≤4.## this equation is an analog to the logistic differential equation.• Interspecies competitionIndependent speciesdx/dt = a xdy/dt = b yset ρ = x/y=> dρ/dt = (ab) ρ=> ρ(t) = ρ0 e(ab)tDominant species is determined only by fitness.Limited by intercompetitioni.e. population size is held const by x+y := 1dx/dt = x (a  φ)dy/dt = y (b  φ)where φ = ax+by = (ax+by)/(x+y) := average fitness of all=> dx/dt = x (1  x) (a – b)Species fitness is reduced by intercompetition, which is represented by average total fitness.Two equilibrium points x*=0, x*=1. Fitness controls which species converges to 1, i.e. “survival of the fitter”.Extend to multi species modelpopulation size is again held constx = (x1, …, xn)φ = ∑ xifi := average fitnessdxi/dt = xi (fi  φ) There will be only one species survive, the one has the largest fitness, i.e. “survival of the fittest.”In trajectory on the simplex, eventually the population will converge to the single global attractor at a corner point.## simplex is cute! • Nonlinear growth leads to coexistence and early control of ecological nichesSet the growth rate to be nonlineardx/dt = a xc  φ xdy/dt = b yc  φ ywhere φ = a xc + b yc=> dx/dt = x (1  x) f(x)where f(x) = a xc1 – b (1x)c1=> x* = 1/(1+(a/b)c1), x* = 0, x* = 1,If c = 1, we are back to the previous linear condition.If c < 1, the growth is subexponential. Coexistence occurs at internal fixed point.If c > 1, the growth is superexponential. Boundary fixed points are stable. Therefore, the attractor to which the system converges to depends on the initial population, if x > x*, the system converges to x > 1, if x < x*, the systems converges to x > 0. The asymptotic behavior is independent of fitness, but which species takes over the ecological niches first, i.e. “survival of the first”. Invasion cannot occur in this case. Invasion is defined as follows: an infinitesimally small fraction of A emerges in all B population, if A can expand and take over B, A is able to invade B. If c > 1, e.g. c = 2, reproduction can occur only if two A’s meet with each other.• Mutation leads to coexistencetwo species modeldx/dt = x (1 – u1) + y u2  φ xdy/dt = y (1 – u2) + x u1  φ yif both species have the same fitness, i.e. a=b=1=> φ = 1=> dx/dt = u2 – x (u1 + u2)=> x* = u2 / (u1 + u2)Mutation leads to coexistence.multi species modelmutation matrix Q = [qij], from i to j<=> The system has a global attractor which is given by the lefthand eigenvector with λ=1.• Mating does not affect allele frequencyAccording to HardyWeinberg principle, in a wellmixed population, random mating does not affect allele frequency. Allele distribution in the population is preserved.回应 20110206 04:12

Chapter 13 is devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of the one trait that is truly our own invention and that is arguably the one interesting thing that has happened in the last six hundred million years on earth. Bacteria invented all the biochemistry of life. Eukaryotes invented some advanced genetics and how to build complicated multicellular plants and animals. Humans will be remembered for ...
20180630 02:59
Chapter 13 is devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of the one trait that is truly our own invention and that is arguably the one interesting thing that has happened in the last six hundred million years on earth. Bacteria invented all the biochemistry of life. Eukaryotes invented some advanced genetics and how to build complicated multicellular plants and animals. Humans will be remembered for language.
回应 20180630 02:59 
...the British mathematician G. H. Hardy, who was proud nenver to have done anything useful (= applied) in his life, only to have his name forever associated with a highly useful and very applied concept in population genetics. 
20180630 00:45

The word "transcription" and "translation" were invented by the mathematician John von Neumann when he calculated how to build a selfreproducing machine. He came up with an architecture equivalent to the orginazation of cells some decades before molecular biology had been invented.  平实的叙述，没有一个惊叹号。赞赏之情溢于言表。
20180630 00:41
The word "transcription" and "translation" were invented by the mathematician John von Neumann when he calculated how to build a selfreproducing machine. He came up with an architecture equivalent to the orginazation of cells some decades before molecular biology had been invented.

平实的叙述，没有一个惊叹号。赞赏之情溢于言表。
回应 20180630 00:41 
mmm (这世界上有种爱情叫做一叶障目)
The main ingredients of evolutionary dynamics are reproduction, mutation, selection, random drift, and spatial movement. Always keep in mind that the population is the fundamental basis of any evolution. Individuals, genes, or ideas can change over time, but only populations evolve. what is the replicator equation? it seems to be key equation in the whole theory. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chap...20121218 11:50
what is the replicator equation? it seems to be key equation in the whole theory.Chapter 2.Chapter 3.Chapter 4:The main ingredients of evolutionary dynamics are reproduction, mutation, selection, random drift, and spatial movement. Always keep in mind that the population is the fundamental basis of any evolution. Individuals, genes, or ideas can change over time, but only populations evolve.
evolutionary game dynamics arise whenever the fitness of an individual is not constant but depends on the relative abundance(=frequency) of others in the population.
回应 20121218 11:50
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1 有用 robin & cabin 20120601
曾关注过他滴研究，他滴老师Karl sigmund开创性滴研究打开了进化论滴新视野……未来滴生物学领域将有更多滴物理人和数学人参与……这又给同学们多了个选择……
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书里的公式，我愿意用“美”来形容
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伟大
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Make the semester!
0 有用 狗打肉包子 20101215
实在是太棒了
0 有用 GoodMorning 20160202
伟大
0 有用 Entelechie 20131228
Make the semester!
1 有用 robin & cabin 20120601
曾关注过他滴研究，他滴老师Karl sigmund开创性滴研究打开了进化论滴新视野……未来滴生物学领域将有更多滴物理人和数学人参与……这又给同学们多了个选择……
0 有用 狗打肉包子 20101215
实在是太棒了
0 有用 lcy 20090716
书里的公式，我愿意用“美”来形容