《Thinking and Deciding》的原文摘录

  • Rational does not mean, here, a kind of thinking that denies emotions and desires: It means, the kind of thinking we would all want to do, if we were aware of our own best interests, in order to achieve our goals. A decision is a choice of action — of what to do or not do. Decisions are made to achieve goals, and they are based on beliefs about what actions will achieve the goals. Decisions depend on beliefs and goals, but we can think about beliefs and goals separately, without even knowing what decisions they will affect. When we think about belief, we think to decide how strongly to believe something, or which of several competing beliefs is true. When we believe a proposition, we tend to act as if it were true. When we decide on a personal goal, we make a decision that affects future d... (查看原文)
    Q 1赞 2012-12-27 11:11:13
    —— 引自第6页
  • In sum, learning without understanding was characterized either by lack of transfer of the principle to cases where it applied or by inappropriate transfer to cases where it did not apply. Understanding, Perkins states, involves knowing three things: (1) the structure of what we want to understand; (2) the purpose of the structure; and (3) the arguments about why the structure serves the purpose. (查看原文)
    Q 1赞 2013-01-03 22:18:39
    —— 引自第26页
  • 好的思维是就是一种理性思维,它是指人们以目标为终点采取的思维方式。是指你应采取的行动。思维的目的就是实现我们心中确定的目标。 任何思维都涉及人们对某事或某人的相信成份,相信是我们决策的基础。 作者认为概率判断中偏差的产生与是否理性问题不同。思维是否理性是看是否进行发散思维,积极搜寻可能和证据,考虑其他目标,而概率判断是否规范,是否有偏差主要与人们是否学习与掌握了概率理论有关。 (查看原文)
    木药 1赞 2014-04-19 12:50:29
    —— 引自第2页
  • We search for three kinds of objects: possibilities, evidence, and goals. (查看原文)
    Q 2012-12-29 20:07:45
    —— 引自第17页
  • 一般说来,搜索在思考之初是最有用的,超过某一“收益递减点”后,搜索就不再有用。 (查看原文)
    柠檬茶 2019-02-28 19:16:12
    —— 引自第54页
  • 非理性信念得到的幸福往往伴随着非理性目标。 (查看原文)
    柠檬茶 2019-02-28 19:16:12
    —— 引自第54页
  • 一般而言,积极的开方式思维最有可能导向正确的信念。 (查看原文)
    柠檬茶 2019-02-28 19:16:12
    —— 引自第54页
  • 良好的思维并不是在学校那样被动的思考,而是指我们自己要做什么,希望他人做什么,如何达到自己和他人的目标 (查看原文)
    黑暗中的舞者 2赞 2011-09-15 22:40:42
    —— 引自第5页
  • 理性思维是指:在意识到自身最优利益的前提下,为了达到自己的目标,我们都想要进行的那种思维 (查看原文)
    黑暗中的舞者 2赞 2011-09-15 22:40:42
    —— 引自第5页