The Origins of Political Order的笔记(48)

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  • 汪杨

    汪杨

    这本书里对当前世界各国的政治形态的观察很总结挺重要的。其对政治形态的起源的探讨也很系统,至少可为一家之言. This transformation was Samuel Huntington’s third wave of democratization; liberal democracy as the default form of government became part of the accepted political landscape at the beginning of the twenty-first century.(如今这一浪潮一方面继续扩散,但另一方面新的保守政府形态在增加) This i...

    2012-09-24 20:20   2人喜欢

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    The biological foundations of politics Human beings never existed in a presocial state...Human beings as well as their primate ancestors always lived in kin-based social groups of varying sizes. Natural human sociability is built around two principles, kin selection and reciprocal altruism. The principle of kin selection or inclusive fitness states that human beings will act altruistically tow...

    2015-04-03 09:31

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    Political liberty - that is, the ability o f societies to rule themselves - does not depend only on the degree to which a society can mobilize opposition to centralized power and impose constitutional constraints on the state. It must also have a state that is strong enough to act when action is required. Accountability does not run in just one direction, from the state to the society. If the gove...

    2015-04-02 19:50

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    A model to explain how did the European countries come out to four divergent outcomes with regard to accountability and representative institutions. ..has to do with the balance of power among only four groups of political actors in the agrarian societies.These are the state itself, represented by the king; the upper nobility; the gentry; and what I call the Third Estate... The state emerged i...

    2015-04-02 19:19

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    England was the first large country in which all these elements (a strong and capable state, the state's subordination to a rule of law, and government accountability to all citizens) came together at once. The three components were highly interdependent. Without a strong early state, there would not have been a rule of law and a broad perception of legitimate property rights. Without a strong rul...

    2015-04-02 11:59

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    ...political freedom is not necessarily achieved by a strong, cohesive, and well-armed civil society that is able to resist the power of the central government. Nor is it always achieved by a constitutional arrangement that puts strict legal limits on executive authority. Hungary was all of these things, and it succeeded in weakening central authority to the point that the country could not defend...

    2015-04-01 18:58

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    Latin America performs less well in two areas. The first is equality. The second is rule of law. These two phenomena are related. Rule of law protections often apply to only a small minority of people in Latin America, such as those who run big businesses or belong to trade unions. In Peru, Bolivia, and Mexico, as much as 60 to 70 percent of the population lives in what is known as the informal se...

    2015-03-31 10:32

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    The stories of four European state-building outcomes. There are: 1. Weak absolutism: France, Spain 2. Successful absolutism: Russia 3. Failed Oligarchy: Hungary, Poland 4. Accountable government: England and Denmark

    2015-03-31 09:16

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    The law would become a more binding constraint on rulers under certain specific conditions: if it was codified into an authoritative text; if the content of the law was determined by specialists in law rather than political authorities; and finally if the law was protected by an institutional order separate from the political hierarchy, with its own resources and power of appointment. ...dimens...

    2015-02-04 18:06

  • 开宙

    开宙 (love always,)

    ...political development in terms of state building, the ability of states to concentrate and use power. The rule of law is a separate component of political order that puts limits on a state's power. The first checks on executive power were not those imposed by democratic assemblies or elections. Rather, they were result of societies believing that rulers had to operate under the law. State build...

    2015-02-03 23:00

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The Origins of Political Order

>The Origins of Political Order