On Speech Techniques
Remarks at an Embassy Workshop
London, 16 June 2009
Today I would like to share with you some techniques I have found effective when giving speeches. But first, I would like to explain why making a good speech is so important, and then what makes a good speech. Lastly, I will talk about some of...
On Speech Techniques关于演讲技巧的几点体会Remarks at an Embassy Workshop在驻英国使馆座谈会上的讲话London, 16 June 2009伦敦，2009年6月16日Today I would like to share with you some techniques I have found effective when giving speeches. But first, I would like to explain why making a good speech is so important, and then what makes a good speech. Lastly, I will talk about some of the problems we might encounter.今天跟大家谈谈外交演讲的方法和技巧，分享一些心得，一是为什么讲，二是讲什么，三是怎么讲，最后谈谈演讲中常见的问题。Why are speeches important?为什么讲Good speeches can help to shape a better international image of China. In Britain, listening to speeches is as common as listening to an opera or a concert; it is part of people’s social and cultural life. Almost every association, academy, think-tank and university hosts regular speeches. It is a platform that no one can afford to ignore.在国外演讲是我们塑造中国形象的重要平台。在英国，听演讲与听歌剧、听音乐会一样，是整个社会文化生活的重要组成部分，几乎所有的行业协会、学术机构、智库和大学都有定期的演讲，是不能忽视的平台。Of late, a book titled Say It like Obama has become a best-seller. Though coming into office only recently, President Obama has spoken on several important occasions, which has enabled him to achieve one of his big ambitions: “to change the image of America.” Looking back, we see that at key moments and turning points in history, great speeches that altered the course of history and changed people’s hearts and minds are always remembered.最近国内出版的《跟奥巴马学演讲》一书很火，奥巴马上台时间不长，实现了一个重要目标：改变、重塑美国的形象，而他正是利用几场大型演讲来实现的。在一些重大历史关头或者变革时刻，历史上记录下来的往往是影响了时代方向或者改变了人们看法的著名演讲。Though not every diplomatic speech has to be historically insightful, they play an important role in sending out China’s messages to the world and changing stereotypes and misconceptions about China, which also calls for a strong sense of mission. So it’s our compelling responsibility to deliver good speeches, get our messages across, and enable new understanding and insights among our foreign audiences.外交演讲虽然不是每篇都要着眼于历史的大视野，但是在当今形势下，去介绍宣传中国，去设法改变外界对中国的成见和错误看法，同样需要有使命感和责任感。好的演讲应该能够实现这样一个目的，就是让听众得到关于中国的新信息，产生新认识和新看法。So, what makes a good speech?讲什么A good speech should have a specific purpose, like answering some questions the audience may have, or providing information of interest. Whatever the occasion, it is always important to stick to the most popular topics about China backed up with relevant facts and figures and, if possible, quotations.每场演讲的目的性必须很明确，一般是解答听众心中的某种疑问或者满足大家的一些信息需求。演讲内容最好与当时大家最关心的关于中国的热门话题相关联，演讲中的引经据典亦应围绕这个主题。There are two equally important components of a speech: one is what we want to say, and the other is what the audience want to hear. If we only focus on what we want to say, it will become a lecture, not a speech. The audience will sit through uninterested, and go home unimpressed. However, if we only focus on the interest of the audience, the speech will miss its purpose. It works best if one can combine the two aspects to make a speech that the audience can relate to. In preparation, we should first learn the educational and professional background of the audience, as well as their age group, and how much they are likely to know about China. Then we can decide what we want to include in the speech and how sophisticated we want the messages to be.演讲内容的选择有两个基本要素，一是自己想讲什么，二是听众关心什么，这两个要素同等重要。如果只关注自己想讲的内容，就有可能成为宣教，不容易抓住听众的注意力，更难影响他们的看法。如果只想迎合听众，则不一定能达到设定的目标。最好能使自己想讲的与别人想听的内容有机地融合起来，形成共鸣。为此，演讲之前应了解听众的职业背景、知识和年龄结构以及对中国的熟悉程度，据此来确定演讲的内容和繁简、深浅。Give you an example here. I was invited to make a three-minute speech for Lang Lang’s solo concert in London to a very learned audience. It is hard to write and deliver a great speech of only three minutes, but it was such a valuable opportunity I would hate to miss. So I began my preparations by searching for stories about Lang Lang and his father, where we found the grip of the speech. When the moment came, I started with their story and then moved on to the changes and development of China. I then concluded that it was the opening and reform policies that had provided young talents like Lang Lang the great opportunities for self-fulfilment. Whilst it was a short speech, I am pleased to say it received long applause. We found the right grip of the speech. From this case we can see that we do not necessarily need big stories to present China’s case. We can develop any point, however small, to be convincing enough to get our messages across.举个选择演讲内容的例子：伦敦交响乐团邀请我为郎朗的独奏音乐会做三分钟致辞。听众是来听音乐会的文化界人士，三分钟讲出点名堂不大容易，但这又是非常宝贵的机会。我反复推敲切入点，在网上查到郎朗和他父亲的故事，决定从这里讲起，引出中国的发展变化，结论是中国改革开放给郎朗提供了成才的社会土壤。虽然这个致辞很短，但鼓掌时间非常长，说明这个切入点是成功的。所以宣传介绍中国不见得一定要讲大道理，从任何一个小的点都可以引申扩大，实现传播信息的目的。As to the techniques of speech, brevity is its soul. We first have to decide on a consistent position we want to pass on to the audience, then try to answer or reason it out, step by step until finally coming to a conclusion that strengthens our stance or our call for action.怎么讲演讲的布局一般要简洁，有一个贯穿始终的思路或者观点，先提出问题，然后一层层作说明，自然地引出结论措施。The British make very simple and clear speeches, without forking out too much. Soon after I was assigned to work in London, I was invited to speak at the Royal Society of Arts about China’s development. I prepared a plentiful amount of materials and a slide show and the audience seemed to be interested. However when it was over, a friend came to tell me that he had found it hard to follow me or to remember what has been said.英国人演讲线条都很直接和清晰，不大会在一场演讲中谈许多不同的问题或者太多的观点。我初来伦敦时在英国皇家艺术学会作关于中国发展变化的演讲，用的材料很翔实，PPT演示内容丰富，讲的时候似乎也抓住了听众的注意力。但下来有朋友评论说，这个演讲让人听得很累，记不住内容。People go to listen to a speech because on one hand they want to learn new knowledge and information, and on the other, they hope to enjoy the process just as they enjoy a concert. So instead of including a laundry list of topics, it is better having a main point, which is to be repeatedly explained and reinforced. In Britain, the routine time for a speech is between 20 and 25 minutes, so forking out too much means that you are unlikely to serve any of them well.人们来听演讲，一方面是学习、吸取新知识和信息，另一方面跟去听音乐会一样，希望享受一个愉快的过程，灌输很多东西效果反而不好。最好只有一个鲜明的贯穿始终的观点，不断加以说明和强化。在英国演讲的例行时间是20—25分钟，内容太多了难以有充分的时间一一展开。A good beginning means your work is half done. A number of sentences into your speech, whether or not you have engaged your audience is a foregone conclusion. I have used both good and bad opening remarks. Once I was invited by the Political Society of Eton College to speak to students aged 17 or 18. I struggled to decide on what to begin with. So, my opening eventually started like this: “Before coming here, I searched ‘Eton’ on the Chinese search engine ‘Baidu’ and it produced 68,000 search results.” The atmosphere was immediately warmed up, as the young students were so curious to know how Eton was described by the Chinese on the Internet. I believe this is a successful opening that engages the audience well.从讲的方法上看：第一，要有一个好的开场白，开篇的几句话能否与听众形成沟通很重要。我有过很不成功的开场白，也有效果比较好的。例如，去英国伊顿公学政治学会演讲时，听众多是十七八岁的年轻人，如何一开始就和他们建立起沟通呢？我说，“来这里之前，我在中文搜索引擎‘百度’上搜索关于‘伊顿’的信息，得到6.8万条结果”，气氛一下子就活跃起来了。对孩子们来说，在中国的网络上如何描绘伊顿是个引人入胜的话题，这个开场白的设计很成功。The earlier you get to your point, the better. One should know better than to stray too far away from the core message. By raising a question first, even a controversial one, you can arouse the interest and curiosity of the audience. You can ask, for example, “Is China a power?” or “Is China’s economic growth sustainable?” A rhetorical question can also get the job done.第二，要尽早切入正题，最好不要上下五千年地讲与主题没有直接关联的话。可以采用提出问题的方式切入，可以带点争议性，调动听众的兴趣和兴奋点，例如：中国是强国吗？中国的经济发展能持续吗？正面的问题也可以反过来问。Facts speak louder than a thousand words and personal experience and examples are far more convincing than abstract concepts. Yiwu is one of my favourite examples, with which I would explain why the massive Chinese manufacturing sector is only producing thin profits and therefore drastic appreciation of the RMB is out of the question and emission cuts have to be phased in gradually for it to be economically viable at all. The more solid the case, the more convincing it will turn out to be.第三，用事实和例子回答提出来的问题，最好由浅入深，少讲道理和概念，多用实例去强化自己的观点，能够结合个人的经历会更好。我经常用自己参观义乌小商品生产的观感为例子，从中国产业的薄利讲到为什么人民币不能大幅升值、为什么在节能减排上要循序渐进等。用实实在在的例子说服力比较强。The conclusion is crucial to the whole speech. The best way to build to the conclusion is to let the audience realise it for themselves with sound reasoning and logic.演讲的结论是通篇的关键，最好通过推论把听众引向结论的方向，让人自然而然地得出这个结论。In 2009 at a commemoration for Shakespeare held at his former residence, I was invited as a representative of all the guests to make a five-minute acknowledgement speech. The guests included fans of this great playwright from across Britain. My key point was that the British did not know China anywhere near as well as the Chinese knew Britain. I told them that on a rainy day in Beijing, to shelter myself from the rain, I went into a bookshop and found shelf after shelf of original versions of English books, whereas in the stores of Britain, I had seldom found books about modern China, let alone any original Chinese books.莎士比亚故居2009年纪念会邀请我作为来宾代表讲五分钟的答谢词，在场的有来自英国各地的莎翁迷，我想讲的核心思想是，英国人对中国的了解不如中国人对英国的了解深。我从在北京避雨的一个经历讲起，进到一个书店，看到一排排书架上摆满了原版的英文书。我说，在英国进过很多书店，很少看到关于现代中国的书，更不要说原版中文书了。Then I talked about the familiarity of the Chinese with Shakespeare. I told them in diplomatic negotiations I usually quoted “To be, or not to be” and it was really a helpful phrase. My audience were obviously amused. But then I said, I wonder how many in this country have heard of the Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu, who actually passed away in the same year with Shakespeare, or of Tang’s work The Peony Pavilion. The audience were silent. I said that now it was time for the West to learn more about China. It was a pointed remark, in fact critical, but when I paused, I heard loud and long applause from the audience.然后我讲到中国人对莎翁和他的戏剧的了解，举例说，在外交谈判中，我经常借用哈姆雷特的名言“是生存还是毁灭”，这是一个非常好使的谈判语言，大家都乐了，但是我话锋一转，问：英国有多少人听说过中国的大戏剧家汤显祖或他的作品《牡丹亭》？你们是否知道汤显祖和莎翁是同一年逝世的？现场特别安静。我接着说，现在应该是西方作出努力来了解中国的时候了。这话比较尖锐，实际上是批评性的，我顿了一下，竟然满场长时间鼓掌。Now let’s discuss some problems we might have in making speeches.与演讲相关的几个问题The first is being nervous. One feels nervous mainly due to a lack of self-confidence or the fear for failure or mistakes. In fact, I am still nervous from time to time even after giving so many speeches. I guess most people have experienced nervousness, which is likely to be the pathway to readiness. The question is: how to control it, and how to transform it into a driving force and passion for success. When we feel nervous, we should speak louder and concentrate more. Be careful not to let nervousness disturb our thinking, not to go from nervousness to arrogance, and not to use a stern expression to cover your uneasiness.一是紧张、胆怯。人紧张最主要的原因恐怕是缺乏自信，担心讲不好，担心讲错。我经历了这么多演讲仍然有紧张的感觉。恐怕谁都会有紧张的情况，也许这是进入竞技状态的必然过程。关键是怎么控制紧张的情绪，让紧张转化为讲好的动力和激情。紧张的时候一定要注意调整，让声音更洪亮，态度更认真，而不是让紧张情绪影响自己的思路，更要防止将紧张情绪转化为傲慢的态度，为了掩饰自己的紧张反而绷着脸去讲话。It is important to show respect to the audience, no matter who they are and however different your views are. Their presence is a respect to us, so they deserve our sincerity. Speak nothing but the truth. If we want others to believe in what we say, we have to have faith in the first place.无论演讲面对的是什么人，哪怕是立场观点完全不同的人，也应该怀着敬畏的心，尊重来听讲的人，毕竟人家花了时间坐在这里，这本身就是对演讲人的尊重。演讲要有诚心和诚恳的态度，要讲真话。要人信，己先信。A good tip to dispel nervousness is to handle it as early as possible. Standing before the audience, one shall be lucky to have 70% of his usual aptitude in the face of emergencies. Thorough preparation is very important and the earlier the better. Practice makes perfect. Speech is no exception. In his memoirs The Gathering Storm, Winston Churchill told us that he would fully prepare and practice even for a small question he would put forward in the Parliament. I am used to practicing before I go to the podium. I may not recite the whole text, but I will read every line at least once and try to remember them by heart. And for unfamiliar words, I will simply read more times. It turns out to be effective for me to ease nervousness when the moment comes.缓解紧张的一个经验是尽量提前处理压力。在全场听众面前，处理能力、机智和反应速度能有平常的70%就非常不错了，关键靠事前的准备。成功的演讲一个非常重要的环节就是练习。丘吉尔在回忆录中谈到，哪怕是在议会里提一个问题，他都要作充分的准备和练习。我喜欢在演讲前反复练习，虽然不能把整个讲稿背下来，但每一个句子都背过一遍，不熟悉的词多念几遍，这也有助于现场克服紧张。The second problem is dullness, which is, more often than not, due to the presence of too many points, not too few of them. A good speaker should know how to choose materials, or drop them, to make his or her points clear. When drafting a speech, we are inclined to write it gorgeously. But when we speak it out, it might not sound nearly as gorgeous. Don’t make beautiful language too big a deal. Any unnecessary words or ideas should be dropped. As a result, you will get a text that is both concise and clear.二是内容乏味。演讲枯燥大多不是因为没有内容，而是内容太多。要学会选择和取舍，成功的演讲不在于讲的内容多丰富，而在于能否把一两个问题说得透彻、明了。写讲稿的时候往往考虑文字如何漂亮，但讲起来，漂亮的文章不一定有漂亮的效果。写讲稿时，不要太追求语言表达，可要可不要的就删去，可有可无的就舍弃，结果往往会更清晰。The third problem is taking much more time than assigned. It is common among speechmakers to use over seven minutes for a three-minute speech or over 30 minutes for a 20-minute one. Time-abiding is also one dimension when judging a speech. It’s better not to exceed 10% of the requested time limit.三是超时的毛病。演讲者一个常见的问题是，3分钟的演讲，7分钟讲不完，给20分钟，讲了半小时还没完。其实遵守时间规定特别重要，也是一般情况下听众判断演讲是否成功的依据之一，通常最好不要超过预定时间的十分之一。Avoid speaking too fast or too monotonously. Some pauses and changes of tone will work well. There are lots of things to learn in controlling the speed and tone of speech, which will require some training. Eye contact and gestures are necessary. Eye contact is both a way of communication with the audience and a display of your self-confidence. Gestures, natural and proper, can be used to support your voice. After all, all you need for success are in the details.另外，语速不宜太快，也不要太平，最好要有一些停顿、起伏，语速和音质的控制是一门学问，需要一定的训练。演讲配合一定的眼神和手势也是必要的，眼睛保持住与观众的沟通，这是自信的基本表现。手势能起到强化声音的作用，但不能勉强。这些细节也是重要的。The fourth is the difficulty in making people laugh. I once translated a book named Techniques of Speech, which said that if a speech couldn’t make the audience laugh within the first two minutes, the speaker should be cautious and if the atmosphere was still dull up to the fifth minute, the speech could be counted as a failure. In Britain, a speaker’s sense of humour is essential. According to my observation there, a 20-minute speech usually makes the audience laugh three or four times and some even make the audience laugh all through.四是讲笑话的困难。我翻译过一本叫《演讲技巧》的书，里面写道，开讲两分钟之内不能逗引观众笑起来，演讲者就应该考虑调整了，如果到了第五分钟气氛还很沉闷，演讲基本上就失败了。在英国演讲，幽默感是必不可少的，据我观察，通常二十分钟左右的演讲要让大家笑三四次，有的甚至让听众笑贯始终。The fifth is about answering questions, which is an important part, sometimes even more important than the speech itself. If we accept the invitation to make a speech but refuse to answer questions, we might leave the impression of being rude or cowardly. Answering questions is a challenge to the speaker’s wisdom, preparedness and ability to rise above the situation, but at the same time a good opportunity to settle down some sensitive issues. If a sharp question is raised for you, don’t get negative, but use this chance to speak out loud your own disagreement and equally, if not more, incisive opinions.第五个是关于回答问题。回答问题是演讲过程中特别重要的环节，有时甚至比演讲本身还重要。如果接受邀请去演讲但又不愿回答问题，会显得不礼貌或者胆怯。回答问题是对演讲人的智慧、心态和掌控能力的挑战，但也是就敏感问题做工作的好机会。如果对方的问题很尖锐，不要反感，可以借机把自己的一些与他们有明显分歧的、同样尖锐的意见讲出来。If you have no idea how to answer the question, say you don’t know and, if necessary, promise to provide a written response afterwards. If the questions are provocative, you have to identify and steer clear of the traps and speak your mind in your own way. It calls for a lot of efforts off the podium. Dig deeper into the news about China you read every day in the newspapers. It is very likely that they will come back to you on some later occasions.如果对提出来的问题确实不了解、不知道，可以说老实话，必要时事后提供书面的答复。但如果问题是挑衅性的，就要靠平常的积累绕出来，讲自己想讲的话，不掉进对方设置的陷阱。回答问题的基本功在于平常积累，每天在报纸上看到与中国有关的新闻都尽量搞清楚，这些问题很可能会在日后的场合出现。Generally speaking, whether a speech has engaged the audience, has solved one or two of their questions, or has passed on new messages are critical standards measuring its failure or success. I believe that with more and more successful speeches, we are contributing more and more in building a better international image for our country.总而言之，检验演讲是否成功的标志在于，是否抓住了听众的注意力，是否解答了他们思想上的一两个问题，是否传递了新的信息。这样日积月累，就能对国家的形象建设作出一份贡献。In conclusion, I would like to stress that there are no secret shortcuts to giving successful speeches but diligence, full preparation, practice and confidence.最后，我想强调，演讲成功的秘诀就是勤奋，充分地准备，大量地练习，大胆地去讲。Thank you.谢谢大家。
I want to start by saying how impressed I am by the seriousness with which Australians approach history. In every state and city I visit, there is always a museum--or many of them--recording local history. Even at Port Authur great care is taken in preserving one of the darkest periods of the exiles. In Australia, history is not only stored in museums, but also a presence in daily life. In Adelaid...
I want to start by saying how impressed I am by the seriousness with which Australians approach history. In every state and city I visit, there is always a museum--or many of them--recording local history. Even at Port Authur great care is taken in preserving one of the darkest periods of the exiles. In Australia, history is not only stored in museums, but also a presence in daily life. In Adelaide, for instance, almost everybody can tell how the city was originally designed with extraordinary foresight and imagination and hwo it grew over the many years.
I would like to share with you some techniques I have found effective when giving speeches.But first , I would like to explain why making a good speech is so important and then, what makes a good speech. lastly, I will talk about some of the problems we might encounter. 开篇就将文章的总体结构介绍的清晰流畅，且不拖泥带水，少有文章如此简洁明快的会让任何读者都能清晰把握文章脉络的，而大使的这篇却是...
I would like to share with you some techniques I have found effective when giving speeches.But first , I would like to explain why making a good speech is so important and then, what makes a good speech. lastly, I will talk about some of the problems we might encounter.
在四川地震灾区死难者哀悼仪式上的演讲 Healing the trauma and putting lives back together will be a long-term endeavour. We look forward to closer cooperation with the UK and the international comunity. I want to mention that , the whole crisis has come under enormous media attention , with hundreds of Chinese journalists reporting from the ground around the clock. And the international media has...
Healing the trauma and putting lives back together will be a long-term endeavour. We look forward to closer cooperation with the UK and the international comunity.
I want to mention that , the whole crisis has come under enormous media attention , with hundreds of Chinese journalists reporting from the ground around the clock. And the international media has been transmitting back live imagines that show true stories of the disaster and relief efforts on the ground, presenting a real China which is open for the world.
伦敦，在“青年破冰者”活动启动仪式上的演讲 This lack of mutual trust can be traced to some developments. The manner with which the issues of Tibet and the Beijing Olympics have been reported by some Western media has hurt many people in China. Many young people in China. Many young people expressed their anger on the Internet and in the streets over the comments made by Jack Cafferty of CNN on ...
This lack of mutual trust can be traced to some developments. The manner with which the issues of Tibet and the Beijing Olympics have been reported by some Western media has hurt many people in China. Many young people in China. Many young people expressed their anger on the Internet and in the streets over the comments made by Jack Cafferty of CNN on April that the Chinese are “basically the same bunch of goons and thugs they've been for the last 50 years.”
According to the results of the lastests opinion poll done by Horizon in China, more than 80% of those polled said they did not like the West any more. Since last year , the number of Europeans who considered China as a threat has reportedly almost doubled and in the United States , 31% of those polled consider China to be a bigger threat than Iran or the DPRK. I have never seen such strong views against China and vice versa in the recent past.
Manchester has a proud history of being the first industrialized city in the world. I remember in the mid 1980s I came to Manchester as a student and was unimpressed. However, when I came back last August, I was so very impressed by the new face of Manchester. It is all too obvious that Manchester , as a city, has accomplished a lot in the city governance and transition in the intervening years...
Manchester has a proud history of being the first industrialized city in the world. I remember in the mid 1980s I came to Manchester as a student and was unimpressed. However, when I came back last August, I was so very impressed by the new face of Manchester. It is all too obvious that Manchester , as a city, has accomplished a lot in the city governance and transition in the intervening years.
Today, Manchester is the fastest-growing city in the UK, and I cannot find a more appropriate place than here to talk about China's new path to industrialisation and the role of Britain.
So, what's China's biggest contribution to the world? I would say it is, first and foremost ,offering one fifth of the world's population a life free from want in peace and stability.
China has now become one of the engines of world economic growth.
What you see today is a faithful replica of nine volumes of antiquarian British Illustrations in 16 books. The original copy has been in China's imperial court and then state archives for over 200 years. 今天展现在大家面前是九卷《钦藏英皇全景图典》的复制品，包括16本画册，这套画册已经先后在清朝皇宫和国家档案馆沉睡了两百多年。 The illustrations are recorded as the tenth of the 590 gifts King Geor...
What you see today is a faithful replica of nine volumes of antiquarian British Illustrations in 16 books. The original copy has been in China's imperial court and then state archives for over 200 years.
The illustrations are recorded as the tenth of the 590 gifts King George III had chosen for Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. In September 1792, he sent Lord Macartney to attend Emperor Qianlong's 83rd birthday celebrations and to establish brotherly relations as stated in the King's letter.His other gifts included a planeyarium, terrestrial globe, telescope, alarm clock, chandelier, and model warships.
There is certainly more awareness in China of the Western world, Africa, and the Eastern world. And there is an awareness that China is now very much part of the world. What happens in China is reported in the world. When I was a student in the UK, I spent hours in the library reading the newspapers and couldn't find anything about China. And now hardly a day passes without news about China. So Ch...
There is certainly more awareness in China of the Western world, Africa, and the Eastern world. And there is an awareness that China is now very much part of the world. What happens in China is reported in the world. When I was a student in the UK, I spent hours in the library reading the newspapers and couldn't find anything about China. And now hardly a day passes without news about China. So China is on the world centre stage, that's for sure. There is awareness of this reality on the part of China, not only among the leaders but at the public level as well. And I think we also realise whatever decision we make, we need now to think what kind of impact it will make on the world. Even for domestic issues, it still can affect the world. And likewise, whatever happens in the world can concern China and the Chinese. And Chinese are everywhere and Chinese interests have spread beyond its borders. We have 45 million Chinese travelling abroad every year.
Some people have such belief in their own way of life, background and values that they think they have the best and would love to measure others against them, even demanding their adoption. That's the feeling I often get, not only at lectures, but also on dinner tables. In China, Confucius said, "If there are three people walking in front of you, one of them must have something to teach you.&...
Some people have such belief in their own way of life, background and values that they think they have the best and would love to measure others against them, even demanding their adoption. That's the feeling I often get, not only at lectures, but also on dinner tables. In China, Confucius said, "If there are three people walking in front of you, one of them must have something to teach you." Be modest; look around before you make a judgement. That's the Chinese way of being. Confucianism is almost in our blood. We joke among ourselves about the British, maybe for some, not for all: if there are three people walking in front of you, you must be their teacher.