6.1 阿爾赫西拉斯會議（Algeciras Conference）
阿尔赫西拉斯会议于1906年在西班牙阿尔赫西拉斯举行，用以调解法国与德国因第一次摩洛哥危机（First Moroccan Crisis）而生的纷争，并确保摩洛哥的苏丹偿还在1904年借下的贷款。根据法国与英国定下来的英法协约，英国确保在埃及的权利，换取法国在摩洛哥之权力。法国想在摩洛哥设立保护国（protectorate），但为德国所反对。
与会国在4月7日达成协议，包括摩洛哥的警方与关税安排、打击走私军火的条例，及对欧洲银行家作让步：成立摩洛哥国家银行，以金支持钞票流通，为期四十年。新银行会作为摩国的财政部，但严格限制(strict cap)摩洛哥王朝(Sherifian Empire)的财政，同时由德、英、法与西班牙的国家银行派出行政人员管理。西班牙的货币继续在当地流通；欧洲人有权买地；银行从公共建设筹税；苏丹政府继续对鸦片与大麻 (Kif) 之生产拥有垄断权。
苏丹维持在六个港口的警察控制权，只聘用摩洛哥穆斯林为警察，而平均年薪只是一千比塞塔。然而，警察训练交由法国与西班牙警官负责，以监察交付薪金的人 (Amin) 和维持纪律；两国政府有权调换警官。监察主任由瑞士人出任，并需要驻守在丹吉尔。
Learning Point: Algeciras Conference was set as the milestone for the world war. The battle lines were drawn in this conference. Although the Algeciras Conference temporarily solved the First Moroccan Crisis, it only worsened the tensions between the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed in 1882 and lasting until 1914) and Triple Entente that ultimately led to the first world war.
1. 德法之間的歷史積怨 (Grievance)
The war and its resulting German victory brought about many important economic, political and social events that had a lasting impact on European and world developments.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (German: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, French: Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870(19 July 1870 – 10 May 1871), was a significant conflict pitting the Second French Empire against the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies in the North German Confederation, as well as the South German states of Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt.
The conflict emerged from tensions regarding German unification. In his memoirs written long after the war, Prussian Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck wrote: "I always considered that a war with France would naturally follow a war against Austria...I was convinced that the gulf which was created over time between the north and the south of Germany could not be better overcome than by a national war against the neighboring people who were aggressive against us. I did not doubt that it was necessary to make a French-German war before the general reorganization of Germany could be realized."  Bismarck adroitly created a diplomatic crisis over the succession to the Spanish throne, then rewrote a dispatch about a meeting between the Prussian King and the French foreign minister to make it appear that the French had been insulted. The French press and parliament demanded a war, which the generals of Napoleon III assured him that France would win. On 16 August 1870, the French parliament voted 101 to 47 to declare war, and the war was declared on 19 August.
The German coalition mobilised its troops much more quickly than the French army, and rapidly moved into northeastern France. The German forces were superior in numbers, had better training and leadership, and made more effective use of modern technology, particularly railroads and artillery. A series of swift Prussian and German victories in eastern France culminating in the Battle of Sedan, saw Napoleon III and his whole army captured on 2 September. Yet this did not end the war, as the Third Republic was declared in Paris on 4 September 1870 and French resistance continued under the Government of National Defence and Adolphe Thiers. Over a five-month campaign, the German forces defeated the newly recruited French armies in a series of battles fought across northern France. Following a prolonged siege, Paris fell on 28 January 1871. The German states proclaimed their union as the German Empire under the Prussian king, Wilhelm I, uniting Germany as a nation-state. The final Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871 gave Germany most of Alsace and some parts of Lorraine which became the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
Following defeat, a revolutionary uprising called the Paris Commune seized power in the capital and held it for two months, until it was suppressed by the regular French army at the end of May 1871. The unification of Germany into an empire in its own right, with the new industrialization of the nation, shifted the European balance of power and Otto von Bismarck maintained great authority in international affairs for two decades. France's determination to regain Alsace-Lorraine would subsequently be a major factor in France's involvement in World War I.
19世紀中葉，在德國的土地上並不存在一個統一的國家，而是由十數個大小不一的日爾曼人小邦國組成的“日爾曼邦聯（confederation）”，分裂造成德國國內資本主義無法發展（因為各邦關卡、課稅重重，商品無法自由流通），在歐洲大陸也無法與其他列強鼎立，故其中的最具實力的大邦普魯士為了建立統一的德意志帝國進而與法國等列強爭奪歐洲大陸霸權，便領導日爾曼邦聯，於西元1870年誘發法國開戰並擊敗法國。在這場戰爭中法國大敗，御駕親征的法皇拿破崙三世（Napelon III）被俘。普魯士大獲全勝，後乘勢率各邦國聯合建立了統一的國家—德意志帝國。法國戰敗後，被逼簽下了普魯士首相奧托•馮•俾斯麥所開出條件非常苛刻的和約：法蘭克福條約規定法國割讓阿爾薩斯-洛林（Alsace-Lorraine ）予德國，並賠款50億法郎，普軍在收齊賠款前，可駐軍於法國。此外，德意志帝國（German Empire）皇帝威廉一世的登基大典於法國的凡爾賽宮舉行(1871 年1月18日)，這大大羞辱（humiliate）了法國，挑起德法兩國之仇恨。戰後法國復仇主義盛行，亦成為第一次世界大戰的另一主因。
Treaty of Frankfurt (法兰克福条约)
The treaty did the following:
Established the frontier between the French Third Republic and the German Empire, which involved the ceding of 1,694 villages and cities under French control to Germany in:
Alsace: the French departments of Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin, except for the city of Belfort and its territory;
Lorraine: the French department of Moselle, one-third of the department of Meurthe, including the cities of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg, and the arrondissements Saales and Schirmeck in the department of Vosges.
Gave residents of the returned Alsace-Lorraine region until 1 October 1872 to decide between keeping their French nationality and emigrating, or remaining in the region and becoming German citizens.
Set a framework for the withdrawal of German troops from certain areas.
Regulated the payment of France's war indemnity of five billion francs (due within five years).
Recognized the acceptance of William I of Prussia as German Emperor.
Required military occupation in parts of France until the indemnity was paid (to the surprise of Germany, the French paid the indemnity quickly).
The treaty also established the terms for the following:
The use of navigable waterways in connection to Alsace-Lorraine
Trade between the two countries
The return of prisoners of war
復仇主義 (法語：Revanchisme；源於法語名詞 revanche ，意指復仇) 從1870年代開始被廣泛使用，意指透過政治運動，向一個國家收復於戰爭後所失去的領土之行為，可在戰爭完結多年後發生。一般而言，復仇主義的萌芽，是基於挽回民族尊嚴、重建報復者地緣政治之影響，或是借助打敗敵人獲得經濟利益。極端復仇主義的思想，經常帶有鷹派色彩，多數認為收復失地只能夠以武力解決，此謂以牙還牙。
復仇主義之思想，通常將民族與民族國家相提並論，並動用根深蒂固的種族民族主義作宣傳，宣稱對國民在該國家外之居住地擁有主權。復仇主義也通常利用沙文主義式的民族主義爭取支持。復仇主義之論據，往往是基於古代版圖，甚至是原居民對領土之佔有 (英語：Autochthonous) 。
普法戰爭後，德國總理奧托•馮•俾斯麥(Otto von bismarck)擔心法國報復，因此採取結盟政策，以孤立法國。他本來讓德意志帝國、奧匈帝國及俄羅斯帝國結成三帝同盟，可是後來在1878年柏林會議上，俄國因巴爾幹半島（Balkan Peninsula）問題，而與奧匈帝國發生利益衝突。1879年，德國選擇與奧匈締結了秘密的德奧同盟。此外，義大利在爭奪北非突尼西亞失敗，讓法國在1881年兼併該地。為了爭取支援，義大利跟德國和奧匈結盟，是為三國同盟。
俄國得知德奧兩國簽訂了德奧同盟後，十分不滿。但俾斯麥是一個老練的政治家，為了保持與俄國的良好關係，於1887年與俄國簽訂了《再保險條約》（Reinsurance Treaty http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%86%8D%E4%BF%9D%E9%9A%AA%E6%A2%9D%E7%B4%84）。可是俾斯麥在1890年下臺後，新任德皇威廉二世不想維持俾斯麥定下的同盟制度，任由條約終止，而選擇只與奧國為盟。法國向俄國提供資本，實現其工業化後，在1894年與俄國結下軍事同盟，是為法俄同盟。
（Learning point: 一個偉大民族的政策如果直接掌握在一個人手中，在他不存在的時候很容易改變。）
3.1 柏林條約(Congress of Berlin,13 June – 13 July 1878)
German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who led the Congress, undertook to stabilize the Balkans, recognize the reduced power of the Ottoman Empire, and balance the distinct interests of Britain, Russia and Austria-Hungary; at the same time he tried to diminish Russian gains in the region and to prevent the rise of a big Bulgaria. As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply; Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire; Eastern Rumelia was restored to the Turks under a special administration; and Macedonia was returned outright to the Turks, who promised reform. Romania achieved full independence, turning over part of Bessarabia to Russia and gaining Northern Dobruja in return. Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence, but with smaller territories, with Austria-Hungary occupying the Sandžak (Raška) region.Austria-Hungary also took over Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Britain took over Cyprus.
3.3 波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那（Bosnia and Herzegovina）
a mountainous republic of south-central Europe; formerly part of the Ottoman Empire and then a part of Yugoslavia; voted for independence in 1992 but the mostly Serbian army of Yugoslavia refused to accept the vote and began ethnic cleansing in order to rid Bosnia of its Croats and Muslims
3.4 泛斯拉夫主義（ Pan-Slavism）
The city itself remained and prospered as the Muslim capital in the Ottoman period; however, scholars normally reserve the name "Constantinople" for the city in Christian period 330–1453, preferring "Istanbul" for the city's name in later centuries. However, many Western writers have continued to refer to the city by its older name "Constantinople" into modern times. The name "Constantinople" is still used by members of the Eastern Orthodox Church(東正教) in the title of one of their most important leaders, the Orthodox patriarch based in the city, referred to as "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch."
3.6俄土戰爭 (Russo-Turkish War (1877–78))
Russia succeeded in claiming several provinces in the Caucasus, namely Kars and Batum. The principalities of Romania (which was also forced by Russia to cede the Budjak region of the Danube delta, in spite of an existing treaty of alliance between the two countries), Serbia and Montenegro, each of which had had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination (1396–1878), the Bulgarian state was re-established as the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains (except Northern Dobrudja which was given to Romania) as well as the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital. The Congress of Berlin also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom to take over Cyprus.
6. 1904年英法協定（Entete Cordiale,Cordiale Agreement）
The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and the French Third Republic. Beyond the immediate concerns of colonial expansion addressed by the agreement, the signing of the Entente Cordiale marked the end of almost a millennium of intermittent conflict between the two nations and their predecessor states, and the formalisation of the peaceful co-existence that had existed since the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. The Entente Cordiale, along with the Anglo-Russian Entente and the Franco-Russian Alliance, later became part of the Triple Entente among the UK, France, and Russia.
7. European balance of power
16th to 18th centuries
In the 16th and 17th centuries, English foreign policy strove to prevent creation of a single Universal Monarchy in Europe, which many believed France or Spain might attempt to create. To maintain the balance of power, the English made alliances with other states—including Portugal, the Ottoman Empire, and the Netherlands—to counter the perceived threat. These Grand Alliances reached their height in the wars against Louis XIV and Louis XV of France. They often involved the English (later the British) paying large subsidies to European allies to finance large armies.
In the 18th century, this led to the stately quadrille, with a number of major European powers—such as Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, and France—changing alliances multiple times to prevent the hegemony of one nation or alliance. A number of wars stemmed, at least in part, from the desire to maintain the balance of power, including the War of the Spanish Succession, War of the Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War, the War of the Bavarian Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. Following Britain's success in the Seven Years' War, many of the other powers began to see London as a greater threat than France. Several states entered the American War of Independence in the hope of overturning Britain's growing strength by securing the independence of Thirteen of the colonies of British America.
During the 19th century, to achieve lasting peace, the Concert of Europe tried to maintain the balance of power. This policy was largely successful in averting a full-scale Europe-wide war for almost a century, until the First World War. Specifically, during the first half of the 19th century, Britain and France dominated Europe, but by the 1850s they had become deeply concerned by the growing power of Russia and Prussia. The Crimean War of 1854–55 and the Italian War of 1859 shattered the relations among the Great Powers in Europe; however, the creation and rise of the German Empire as a dominant nation restructured the European balance of power. For the next twenty years, Otto von Bismarck managed to maintain the balance of power, by proposing treaties and creating many complex alliances between the European nations.
After the resignation of Otto Von Bismarck in the 1890s, the foreign policy of the German Empire became expansionary and the newly created alliances were proven to be fragile, something that triggered the First World War in 1914. One of the objectives of the Treaty of Versailles, the main post-WWI treaty, was to abolish the dominance of the 'Balance of Power' concept and replace it with the (global) League of Nations.
This idea floundered as Europe split into three principal factions in the 1920s and 1930s: Liberal Democratic states led by Britain and France, Communist states led by the Soviet Union, and authoritarian nationalists led by Germany and Italy. The failure of the Democratic states to prevent the advance of Nazi Germany ultimately led to the Second World War, which led to a temporary alliance between Britain and the Soviets.
Post-World War II: Cold War period
During the post-Second World War era the West split into two blocs, a balance of power emerged in between the Eastern Bloc: affiliated with the Soviet Union and the Socialist nations of Central and Eastern Europe; the Western Bloc: affiliated with the Western democracies, particularly France, the United States, and Britain, and Third World neutral countries, including Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia. The majority of the European democratic nations, together with Canada and the US, came together under the military alliance of NATO, which continues to this day and has expanded to other countries in Europe. The first NATO Secretary General, the British Lord Ismay, famously stated the organization's initial goal was "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down."
Late 20th and 21st centuries
In the present day the three most powerful members of the European Union (EU) — Britain, France, and Germany — are referred to as the EU three. Often in (internal) EU and NATO debates on strategy and general decision-making, two of the three are able to take a lead amongst the governments of those alliances. Germany and France (who are members of the Eurozone whilst the UK is not) are often regarded as the EU's economic leaders, such as with the on-going Euro crisis, whilst France and Britain (who have significantly more military capabilities and global presence than Germany) often lead in defence and foreign policy matters, such as the intervention in Libya in 2011. This, to an extent, represents a balancing of leadership power for the Western sphere of the continent. There continues however to be a wider, strategic balance of Western and (now) Russian power, albeit with the boundary between the two pushed further east since the collapse of the Soviet Union, with many former Socialist countries in central Europe having since joined the EU and NATO.
8. Congress of Vienna