这篇笔记是根据英国BBC伟大的思想家系列记录片 尼采——人性，太人性的 整理乱写而得，姑且读之。
Episode 1 A Hermit
Nietzsche was once misunderstood for he was recognized as the leading philosopher of the Third Reich. Hitler twisted his philosophy and pulled the world into pandemonium, killing countless lives according to his philosophy. Therefore, Nietzsche was the forbidden fruit. A lot of scholars...
这篇笔记是根据英国BBC伟大的思想家系列记录片 尼采——人性，太人性的 整理乱写而得，姑且读之。Episode 1 A HermitNietzsche was once misunderstood for he was recognized as the leading philosopher of the Third Reich. Hitler twisted his philosophy and pulled the world into pandemonium, killing countless lives according to his philosophy. Therefore, Nietzsche was the forbidden fruit. A lot of scholars dared not to talk about him in a long time and he was almost abandoned in the forgotten kingdom.As time pass by, the shadow of the war was no longer that overwhelming and researchers started studying on him again wondering whether he was conveying the same idea as Hitler did. Obviously, the answer is not. His little sister Elizabeth re-edited his work and combined all the selections into one, called the Will to Power. However this book misleads readers and put Nietzsche and his philosophy into a desperate situation. All these insulted Nietzsche and his wisdom in a deep degree and became the last tragedy in his life.I respect Nietzsche as the tutor of my life and see him as a hermit. The fact that he is a fighter is widely believed and so did I. But after learning all his story and philosophy, his picture becomes clearer and clearer. He was a hermit in black mantle, pacing upon the mountains and chasing the Goddess of Truth. I dreamt him climbing desolated peak covered with snow and no one in sight. He was in deep loneness and almost no one contemporary understood him. He had no one communicating and sharing with. He was all alone in the world.Aloneness, great aloneness was the companion with wisdom. It was the loneness that made him in agonies. And agonies woke him up from innocent. He saw the misery of human being and felt helpless all the time. He could not fall into the abyss of numbness again. Neither could he wake others up. Trapped in depression, he had no choice but find the way to wake them up.Episode 2 humanityPut yourself in this image. There is a deep cliff in front of you and your companies. You are the only one realizing the potential danger. What will you do then? Stop others heading. But all the others are blind and deaf. They can neither listen nor see. Furthermore they are told there will be treasury at the end of the path. Will they follow your advice then? Of course not! They are unreasonable and insane! They think you want to get the all treasury. Then what else can you do? You must be angry and then full of agonies.So was Nietzsche.“I know my fate. One day my name will be associated with something tremendous. A crisis without equal on earth, the most profound conviction of conscious conjured up against everything but being believed, demanded hallows so far. Where you see ideals, I see what is human. Alas! All too human. ” He wrote in his book. The crisis he predicted was the crisis of religious faith that was sweeping through Europe in the 19th century. He realized that Christianity would no longer meet the demand of human being. And the old theology would no longer comfort its adherents.With the development of human civilization, human beings came to discover the hidden secret of the evolution in human species. The old explanation in Holy Bible was subverted with the acceptation of the evolution theory. Panic stroke all over the mainland. Human beings were confronted with a serious belief crisis.Nietzsche was as panicked as everyone else were. His old belief collapsing, he desired to get a solution. In his letter to Elizabeth, he conveyed his doubt and confusion to his sister“I wrote this to you only in order to count the most usual proves of believers. Every truth is inferable. It performs what a believing person hopes to find in it but it does not offer the least support for the establishing of an objective truth. Here the ways of man divide. If he wants to achieve a piece of mind in happiness, have faith. If he wants to a decipher of truth, then search.”He made his choice and then began his long painful journey of searching Truth. He abandoned Christianity and found that the old religious was nothing but a hypocritical hustler. It controlled its followers and enforced them to stop thinking. He, then, proclaimed the Death of God, which is his most provocative attack on religion.“Have you not heard of that mad man who lit a lantern in bright morning hours ran to the market place and cried insanely, ‘I seek God. I seek God.’ As many of those who do not believe in God were standing around just then, he provoked much laughter. ‘Why? Did he get lost?’ said one. ‘Did he lose his way like a child?’ said another, ’ is he hiding?’The mad man jumped in that mist and pierced them with his glances.’ Where is God’ he cried.’ I shall tell you, we have killed him, you and I. all of us are his murders.’”Deep in his mind, Nietzsche himself was the mad man who seeking God but get nothing but mockery. But actually the mad man here is not really insane. Nietzsche established him as the saint of Truth. What made a mockery to reality is that the real wisdom was treated as insane and the rest innocent, numb human beings was regarded as the normal group. That is the great tragedy of real genius, including Nietzsche himself. Although he was strongly disapproved by others and was said crazy, Nietzsche never stops his research in humanity. If Nietzsche conveyed confusion more than misery in his mad man metaphor, not long after the figure of mad man created, he expressed himself in a more sorrowful way.“God is dead and God remains dead because we have killed him. How shall we, the murderers of all murderers, comfort ourselves, what was holliest and most powerful of all in the world is yet now has bleed to death under our knives. Who will wipe the blood from my hands？”He turned to philosophy hoping to find a way to alleviate the agony and discover the thinking of a German atheist thinker, Arthur Schopenhauer. Here he found a consolation to make sense of a Godless universe. Schopenhauer`s philosophy is pessimistic and it`s very cruel. It recognizes that human experience is not, for the most part, very pleasant and there are certain ways in which we can comfort ourselves with this Truth. Richard Wagner was famous for his perfect interpretation of Schopenhauer`s philosophy in his music. As adherents of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Wagner became friends. However Nietzsche found himself not comforted with Schopenhauer`s theory soon and the divide and separation between the two are inevitable.To Nietzsche, another great influence to his philosophy was his chronic physical illness. He documented his life with the illness.“Every 2 or 3 weeks, I spend about 36 hours in bed in real torment. Perhaps I am gradually improving. But this winter is the worst that has been. I keep thinking it is such a strain getting through the day by evening. There is no pleasure left in life and I am really unsurprised that how difficult living is.”His illness urged him to find a new philosophy coping with his life and problems. And as I mentioned before the Schopenhauer way and Wagner way, the way escaping in music, is not enough for him.He turned his life, will and health into a philosophy, into the will to power. In another word, he applies self-mastering in his philosophy. For him, it involves acquiring as much knowledge as possible about the human body, about his physiology and psychology. He found that one of the greatest influences of Christianity was to banish the body from culture and suggested that maybe the living western philosophy misunderstand the body. Therefore our physical nature has been buried on the way of our thinking. Under the inspiration of the will to power, he published a new book named Human All Too Human, which illustrated his new theory. Another well-known psychiatrist Sigmund Freud was deeply influenced by him. It is no exaggeration that there will not be Freud without Nietzsche. What`s more this book was his first proclamation of individualism.After the book published, Nietzsche cut himself from a lot of his friends, including Wagner. Wagner even thought this book as an evidence of Nietzsche`s mental instability. Nietzsche became more isolated as a result. But he described himself as the heroic figure heading out up mountains into new territory. In another book, he made another lonely pilgrim, Zarathustra. Zarathustra wished to tell his audience what the truth is but never find the right audience.“Behold! I will teach you about the OVERMAN. Mankind itself is with something that must be overcome.”In the book Also Sprach Zarathustra, he coined another term, Overman. He proposed an ideal of self-overcoming. He asked the question that how can we human beings transcend ourselves? And give out the answer, self-overcoming. The theory of Overman can be regarded as one of the most important theories in his philosophy. After decades of painful researching, he ultimately found his answer to self-actualization. With the last gasp of his efforts, he started another book about transvalue. But unfortunately this book never finished for he was diagnosed insane afterwards. And he had to live with his sister Elizabeth, who allowed the visitors to visit him as he were an animal.Episode 3 Eternity“The finest virtue of a great thinker is the magnanimity with which a man of knowledge he intrepidly often with some embarassment, often with sublime mockery offers himself and his life as the supreme sacrifice.”Nietzsche is a great thinker and he also made the sacrifice to the approach to the Truth of Life.He was the 1st thinker to realize the death of god would give something new to human history. The idea of absolute freedom, of man is the soul major of universe. What he experienced and described in his work is nothing more but the birth pain of modern civilization.In some way, Nietzsche is as important as Marcs, Freud and Einstein in the evolution in way of people thinking in a new century. The chief effect of Nietzsche is a tremendous loosening out of moral certainties and interlocutory certainties. In his age, people no longer know for sure what is good or evil, or what is right or not. Everyone is skeptical of all the values and old beliefs. Human beings lost in some way.That is exactly why Nietzsche was in such an eager to finish the transvalue job. But he gave himself an almost impossible mission. The whole project of transvalue is too big to any individual to fulfill. Nietzsche felt such an urge but have no effort and time to finish it, which pulled him into a deeper sea of depression. That might be the reason for Nietzsche`s finally collapse and being trapped in insanity. All in all, Nietzsche is still one of the most important philosophers in modern philosophy. He is the forerunner of the revolution in modern value system.
我另外查找了一本英文书(The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsch, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gary Handwerk-Human, All Too Human II and Unpublished Fragments from t...
我另外查找了一本英文书(The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsch, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gary Handwerk-Human, All Too Human II and Unpublished Fragments from the Period of Human, All Too Human II (Spring 1878-Fall 1879) )。原文如下：
To those disillusioned with philosophy. ---Even if you previously believed that life had the highest value and now seeyourselves disillusioned, do you really have to sell it off right away at the lowest price?
Spoiled. -We can become spoiled even with regard to the clarity of concepts: how disgusting it then becomes to deal with things that are only partially clear, hazy, striving, intimated! How ridiculous and yet unamusing to see them eternally fluttering and straining, without being able to fly or to grasp!