looks at less and sees more our realities are very different. I am "seeing" much more than he is seeing. I decided that this was a throw I wanted to cultivate at a very high level. 分解练习 精进技术 融会贯通 If that same tool (the conscious mind) is used for a much smaller amount of information in the same amount of time, then we can see every detail of each letter. Now time feels slowed down. ...
looks at less and sees more
our realities are very different. I am "seeing" much more than he is seeing.
I decided that this was a throw I wanted to cultivate at a very high level.
分解练习 精进技术 融会贯通
If that same tool (the conscious mind) is used for a much smaller amount of information in the same amount of time, then we can see every detail of each letter. Now time feels slowed down.
With practice I'm making networks of chunks and paving more and more neural pathways, which effectively takes huge piles of data and throws it over to my high-speed processor- the unconscious. Now my conscious mind, focusing on less, seems to rev up its shutter speed from, say, four frames per second to 300 or 400 frames per second. The key is to understand that my trained mind is not necessarily working much faster than an untrained mind- it is simply working more effectively, which means that my conscious mind has less to deal with. Because I am looking at less, there are, within the same unit of time, hundreds of frames in my mind, and maybe only a few for my opponent '(whose conscious mind is bogged down with much more data that has not yet been internalized as unconsciously accessible). I can now operate in all those frames that he doesn't even see.
心理战 get into the opponent's heads
It's the mental side of the game that will be critical.
Her he could have just neutralized my pressure, let it go, but instead he held his ground, pushed back. I have engaged his ego. He is already set up.
because his reaction to the one is already predictable. I will move before his two.
The volunteer is answering questions, following, trying to look good onstage. He is engaged in the banter of the illusionist, and then suddenly has a seed planted in his mind. The subtlety of this deception is that if the performer fails to fully engage the man's consious mind, then the clever volunteer will realize he's being programmed and decide to choose another card- the trick won't work.
they players are in a fight to enter each other's heads.
When one player is more aware of these issues than the other, conditioning is quite simple. Real estate moguls furrow their brows, act impatient, check their watches to lull buyers into nervous offers. observe a rhythm, and control the pace of the game. To master these psychological battles, it is essential to understand their technical foundation. These are skills to be cultivated like any other.
I studies until I understood.
When I think about creativity, it is always in relation to a foundation. We have our knowledge. It becomes deeply internalized until we can access it without thinking about it. Then we have a leap that uses what we know to go one or two steps further. We make a discovery. 像砌金字塔
Ther is a connection between that discovery and what you know.
We have created a body of theory around a fleeting moment of inspiration. Now there are techniques and principles that make this weapon accessible all the time. We have taken our pyramid of knowledge up one level and solidified a higher foundation for new leaps.
chunking and carved neural pathways
Chunking relates to the mind's ability to assimilate large amounts of information into a cluster that is bound together by certain patterns or principles particular to a given discipline. Stronger players had better memeories when the positions were taken out of the games of other strong players, because they re-created the positions by taking parts of the board (say five or six pieces) and chunking (merging) them in the mind by their interrlationships. The stronger the player, the more sophisticated was his or her ability to quickyl discover connecting logical patterns between the pieces (attack, defense, tension, pawn chains, etc.) and thus they had better chess memoreis. In a nutshell, chunking relates to the mind's ability to take lots of inofrmaiton, find a harmonizing/logically consistent strain, and put it together in to one mental file that can be accessed as if it were a single piece of information.
"carved neural pathways"- the process of creating chunks and the navigation system between chunks.
Let's say that I spend fifteen years studying chess. During these thousands of hours, my mind is effectively cutting paths through the dense jungle of chess. The jungle analogy is a good one. Imagine how time-consuming it would be to use a machete to cut your way through thick foliage. A few miles could take days. Once the path is cleared, however, you could move quickly through the clearing. If you were to make a road and ride a bike or other vehicle, the transportation would get faster still.
When confronted by a new chess position, initially I have to plod through the variations. During this process, I discover organizing principles and new patterns of movement. This new information gets systematized into a network of chunks that I can access with increasing ease as my navigational function improves.
Chess pieces stop being hunks of wood or plastic, and begin to take on an energetic dimension. Where the piece currently sits on a chessboard pales in comparison to the countless vectors of potential flying off in the mind. I see how each piece affects those around it. Because the basic movements are natural to me, I can take in more information and have a broader perspective of the board. Now when I look at a chess position, I can see all the pieces at once. The network is coming together.
Over time, that process becomes increasingly natural to me, until I eventually see the pieces and the appropriate principles in a blink.
The pieces gradually lose absolute identity. I learn that rooks and bishops work more efficiently together than rooks and knights, but queens and knights tend to have an edge over queens and bishops. Each piece's power is purely relational, depending upon such variables as pawn structure and surrounding forces. So now when you look at a knight, you see its potential in the context of the bishop a few squares away.
总结：laying a solid foundation by studying positions of reduced complexity (endgame before opening). then we apply the internalized principles to increasingly complex scenarios. In Making Smaller Circles we take a single technique or idea and practice it until we feel its essence. Then we gradually condense the movements while maintaining their power, until we are left with an extremely potent and nearly invisible arsenal. We again focus on a select group of techniques and internalize them until the mind perceives them in tremendous detail. After training in this manner, we can see more frames in an equal amount of time, so things feel slowed down. We use our cultivation of the last tow principles to control the intention of the opponent- and again, we do this by zooming in on very small details to which others are completely oblivious.
Taichi It is Chen's opinion that a large obstacle to a calm, healthy, present existence is the constant interruption of our natural breathing patterns. A thought or ringing phone or honking car interrupts an out-breath and so we stop and begin to inhale. Then we have another thought and stop before exhaling. The result is shallow breathing and deficient flushing of carbon dioxide from our syste...
It is Chen's opinion that a large obstacle to a calm, healthy, present existence is the constant interruption of our natural breathing patterns. A thought or ringing phone or honking car interrupts an out-breath and so we stop and begin to inhale. Then we have another thought and stop before exhaling. The result is shallow breathing and deficient flushing of carbon dioxide from our systems, so our cells never have as much pure oxygen as they could. Tai Chi meditation is, among other things, a haven of unimpaired oxygenation.
He needs time to internalize the new skills before he will improve.
It is essential to have a liberating incremental approach that allows for times when you are not in a peak performance state.
Great ones are willing to get burned time and again as they sharpen their swords in the fire. a willingness to put himeself on the line as a way of life. He was willing to look bad on the road to basketball immortality.
in the pursuit of excellence, the theme is depth over breadth. The learning principle is to plunge into the detailed mystery of the micro in order to understand what makes the macro tick. Our obstacle is that we live in an attentino-deficit culture. When nothing exciting is going on, we might get bored, distracted, separated from the moment. So we look for new entertainment, surf channels, flip through magazines. Nothing is learned at a high level and what results are form collectors with fancy kicks and twirls that have absolutely no martial value.
When through painstaking refinement of a small movement I had the improved feeling, I could translate it onto other parts of the form, and suddenly everything would start flowing at a higher level. The key was to recognize that the principles making one simple technique tick were the same fundamentals that fueled the whole expansive system of Tai Chi Chuan.
Once I experienced these principles, I could apply them to complex positions because they were in my mental framework. soaking its principles into my skin. (要想精进需要极大量的练习，让其融入血液）
There was no margin for idealized fanciness. Things happened too quickly.
The next step of my growth would involve making my existing repertoire more potent.
touch the essence of a technique, and then to incrementally condense the external manifestation of the technique whle keeping true to its essence. Over time expansiveness decreases while potency increases. I call this method "Making Smaller Circles".
When throwing my right, I don't think about anything technical anymore, my body just knows the right feeling and does it. No mind. It's in the blood.
They have condensed large circles into very small ones, and made their skills virtually invisible to the untrained eye. （不断精进）
The secret behind this style of play is a profound internalization of the principles behind central domination. Michael Adams knows how to control the center without appearing to have anything to do with the center. He has made the circles so small, even Grandmasters cannot see them.
Subtle internalization and refinement is much more important than the quantity of what is learned. I had condensed my body mechanics into a potent state, while most of my opponents had large, eleganct, and relatively impractical repertoires. The fact is that when there is intense competition, those who succeed have slightly more honed skills than the rest. It is rarely a mysterious technique that drives us to the top, but rather a profound mastery of what may well be a basic skill set. Depth beats breadth any day of the week, because it opens a channel for the intangible, unconscious, creative components of our hidden potential.
numbers to leave numbers, form to leave form. Novices are counting in their heads or on their fingers before they make exchanges. In time, they will stop couting. The pieces will achieve a more flowing andintegrated value system. They will move across the board like fields of force. What was once seen mathematically is now felt intuitively. I tried to pick apart my opponent's position and disco...
numbers to leave numbers, form to leave form. Novices are counting in their heads or on their fingers before they make exchanges. In time, they will stop couting. The pieces will achieve a more flowing andintegrated value system. They will move across the board like fields of force. What was once seen mathematically is now felt intuitively.
I tried to pick apart my opponent's position and discovered new layers of his defensive resources, all the while my mind thawing, integrating the evolving structural dynamics it had not quite understood before. Over time my blood started flowing, sweat came, I settled into the rhythm of analysis, soaked in countless patterns of evolving sophistication.
Their psychological nuances in life manifested over the board.
I saw the art as a movement closer and closer to an unattainable truth, as if I were traveling through a tunnel that continuously deepend and widened as I progressed. The more I knew about the game, the more I realized how much there was to know. I emerged from each good work session in slightly deeper awe of the mystery of chess, and with a building sense of humility.
When the chessboard comes out, Razuvaev's face settles into a relaxed focus, his eyes become peircing, and a razor-sharp mind comes to bear.
You synchronize desires, speak the same language. You don't break the horse's spirit. Handle him nicely, make your intention the horse's intention.
They have established a bond that neither wants to disrupt.
vs. shock and awe (two different styles)
There is the careful balance of pushing yourself relentlessly, but not so hard that you melt down. Muscles and minds need to stretch to grow, but if stretched too thin, they will snap. A competitor needs to be process-oriented, always looking for stronger opponenets to spur growth, but it is also important to keep on winning enough to maintain confidence. We ahve to release our current ideas to soak in new material, but not so much that we lose touch with our unique natural talents.
The Soft Zone: The nature of your state of concentration will determine the first phase of your reaction- if you are tense, with your fingers jammed in your ears and your whole body straining to fight off distraction, then you are in a Hard Zone that demands a cooperative world for you to function. Lke a dry twig, you are brittle, ready to snap under pressure. The alternative is for you to be q...
The Soft Zone:
The nature of your state of concentration will determine the first phase of your reaction- if you are tense, with your fingers jammed in your ears and your whole body straining to fight off distraction, then you are in a Hard Zone that demands a cooperative world for you to function. Lke a dry twig, you are brittle, ready to snap under pressure. The alternative is for you to be quietly, intensely focused, apparently relaxed with a serene look on your face, but inside all the mental juices are churning. You flow with whatever comes, integrating every ripple of life into your creative moment. This Soft Zone is resilient, like a flexible blade of grass that can move with and survive hurrican-force winds. 印度寓言-披荆斩棘还是穿鞋
how to handle dirty opponents without losing my cool
The problem is that when I got angry, I was thrown off my game. I tried to stay level-headed, but this one rivla of mine had no limits. He would push me to the point of utter exasperation and I would often self-destruct. (自我毁灭。控制情绪，控制情绪，控制情绪）
I have come to believe that the solution to this type of situation does not lie in denying our emotions, but in learning to use them to our advantage.
The downward sprial:
One idea I tught was the importance of regaining presence and clarity of mind after making a serious error. This is a hard lesson for all competitors and performers. The first mistake rarely proves disastrous, but the downward spiral of the second, third, and fourth error creates a devastating chain reaction.
Problems set in if the performer has a brittle dependence on the safety of absolute perfection or duplication. Then an error triggers fear, detachment, uncertainty, or confusion that muddies the decision-making process.
She could have walked away unscathed if she had just stepped back onto the pavement, but instead she turned and cursed the fast-pedaling bicyclist.
She wasn't hurt, but instead of reacting with alertness, she was spooked into anger, irritated that her quiet had been shattered. Her reaction was a perfect parallel to the chess player's downward spiral- after making an error, it is so easy to cling to the emotional comfort zon of what was, but there is also that unsettling sense that things have changed for the worse.
I have always visualized two lines moving parallel to one another in space. One line is time, the other is our perception of the moment. I showed my students these lines with my hands, moving through the air. When we are present to what is, we are right up front with the expansion of time, but when we make a mistake and get frozen in what was, a layer of detachment builds. Time goes on and we stop. Suddenly we are living, playing chess, crossing the street with our eyes closed in memory. And then comes the taxicab. (clear his mind, came back to the moment, collected himself and won a critical game)